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Anolis sabanus GARMAN, 1887

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Saba Anole, Saban Anole 
SynonymAnolis sabanus GARMAN 1887: 39
Anolis bimaculatus sabanus — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959
Anolis sabanus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 332
Anolis sabanis — BAUMEISTER 2000
Anolis sabanus — STENSON et al. 2004
Ctenonotus sabanus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Ctenonotus sabanus — GIOVANNOTTI ET AL. 2016
Ctenonotus sabanus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: Saba

Type locality: Saba.  
TypesLectotype: MCZ 6161, selected by Lazell, 1972. Syntype: USNM 39299 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Maximum SVL 69 mm in males, 50 mm in females; 4-5 rows of
loreals; 0-1 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 2 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; 3-4 postrostrals; 4--6 postmentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; dorsal scales granular, swollen, 2 dorsalmost rows enlarged; scales lateral to middorsals grade abruptly to smaller granules; ventral scales smooth, cycloid, slightly imbricate, larger than dorsals; supradigital scales ~;mooth; 4-5 vertical rows of scales/10th caudal verticil; 1 row of enlarged dorsal c~udal scales. Dorsal ground color (male) ash-gray to pale coffee-brown; dark spots of slate blue to black dorsally; short, gray flank stripe; dorsal spots may fuse to give effect of broad stripes; venter light, greenish yellow to gray; dewlap light, greenish yellow, shading toward orange-yellow at anterior center; dorsum (females) paler than males, gray or olive to light brown; head may have coppery tinge; dorsal spots reduced to mottling and smudges; a mottled ladder or striped middorsal pattern; venter greenish yellow with metallic sheen (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 332). 
CommentFor illustrations see Wijffels, 1971; Lazell, 1972; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985, Baumeiser 2000. Has been synonymized with A. alliaceus by Günther 1888.

Species group: Ctenonotus bimaculatus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Karyotype: 2n=29, X1X2Y (males) or 2n = 0, X1X1X2X2 (females) (Giovannotti et al. 2016)

Abundance: only known from the type locality (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality, Saba Island. 
  • Baumeister, W. 2000. Saba - ein Paradies in der Karibik. DATZ 53 (7): 20-23
  • Garman, S. 1887. On West Indian reptiles. Iguanidae. Bull. Essex Inst. 19: 25-50. - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Giovannotti, M.; & V. A. Trifonov, & A. Paoletti & I. G. Kichigin & P. C. M. O’Brien & F. Kasai & G. Giovagnoli & B. L. Ng & P. Ruggeri & P. Nisi Cerioni & A. Splendiani & J. C. Pereira, & E. Olmo & W. Rens & V. Caputo Barucchi, & M. A. Ferguson-Smit 2016. New insights into sex chromosome evolution in anole lizards (Reptilia, Dactyloidae). Chromosoma 126 (2): 245–260 | Cite as DOI 10.1007/s00412-016-0585-6 - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • Jesse, Wendy A.M.; Hannah Madden, Jasper Molleman, and Tim van Wagensveld 2016. First Recorded Introduction for the Saba Anole (Anolis sabanus) and an Overview of Introduced Amphibians and Reptiles on St. Eustatius. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 23 (2): 143–146 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Lisachov, A. P., Makunin, A. I., Giovannotti, M., Pereira, J. C., Druzhkova, A. S., Caputo Barucchi, V., Trifonov, V. A. 2019. Genetic Content of the Neo-Sex Chromosomes in Ctenonotus and Norops (Squamata, Dactyloidae) and Degeneration of the Y Chromosome as Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing of Individual Chromosomes. Cytogenetic and Genome Research - get paper here
  • Malhotra, A. & Thorpe, R.S. 1999. Reptiles & Amphibians of the Eastern Caribbean. MacMillan, London & Oxford
  • Medina, Iliana; Jonathan B. Losos andD. Luke Mahler 2016. Evolution of dorsal pattern variation in Greater Antillean Anolis lizards. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12881 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Powell, M.A., R. Powell, and R.W. Henderson 2006. Anolis sabanus Garman 1887 Saba Anole, Lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles (815): 1-5 - get paper here
  • Roughgarden, J. 1995. Anolis Lizards of the Caribbean: Ecology, Evolution, and Plate Tectonics. OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS, 200 pp.
  • Schall, J.J. & C.M. Staats 2002. Virulence of Lizard Malaria: Three Species of Plasmodium Infecting Anolis sabanus, the Endemic Anole of Saba, Netherlands Antilles Copeia 2002 (1): 39-43. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Staats, Christine M.;Bartolotta, Tracy;Schall, Jos. J. 1998. Body size and perching behavior of Anolis sabanus, the solitary anole of Saba, Netherlands Antilles. Herpetological Natural History 5 (2): 157-163 [1997]
  • Stenson, Andrew G.; Roger S.Thorpe and Anita Malhotra 2004. Evolutionary differentiation of bimaculatus group anoles based on analyses of mtDNA and microsatellite data. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32: 1 –10 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Surget-Groba, Y., & Malhotra, A. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny, species age and biogeography of the Lesser Antillean anoles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R.S.; Jones, A.G.; Malhotra, A.; Surget-Groba, Y. 2008. Adaptive radiation in Lesser Antillean lizards: molecular phylogenetics and species recognition in the Lesser Antillean dwarf gecko complex, Sphaerodactylus fantasticus. Molecular Ecology 17(6):1489-1504 - get paper here
  • Wijffels, L.C.M. 1971. Enige notities over Anolis bimaculatus sabanus Garman, 1887 en zijn natuurlijk voorkomen. Lacerta 30 (1):7-9. - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
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