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Anolis sagrei DUMÉRIL & BIBRON, 1837

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAnolis sagrei mayensis SMITH & BURGER 1949
Anolis sagrei sagrei DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837 
Common NamesE: Cuban brown anole, Brown anole
G: Bahama-Anolis
S: Abaniquillo Costero Maya
S: Abaniquillo Costero Maya [mayensis]
E: Mayan Coastal Anole [mayensis]
E: Bahaman brown anole [ordinatus]
G: Bahamaanolis [ordinatus] 
SynonymAnolis Sagrei DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 149
Dactyloa (Trachypilus) sagraei — FITZINGER 1843: 67
Dracontura catenata GOSSE 1850: 346
Anolis sagraei — HALLOWELL 1856: 229
Anolis ordinatus COPE 1864: 175
Anolis sagrae — BOULENGER 1885: 40
Anolis sagrae — GÜNTHER 1885: 45
Anolis sagrae — ROSEN 1911: 33
Anolis greyi BARBOUR 1914: 287
Anolis stejnegeri BARBOUR 1931: 88
Anolis sagrae — CAMP 1923: 308
Anolis sagrei ordinatus — BARBOUR 1937: 126
Anolis stejnegeri — SMITH 1946
Anolis sagrei mayensis SMITH & BURGER 1949: 407
Anolis sagrei stejnegeri — BELL 1953
Anolis sagrei ordinatus — BELL 1953
Anolis sagrei greyi — BUIDE 1967
Anolis sagrei greyi — SCHWARTZ & THOMAS 1975: 101
Norops sagrei greyi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 160
Norops sagrai — VILLA et al. 1988
Norops sagrei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 159
Norops sagrei ordinatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988: 160
Anolis sagrei — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 91
Norops sagrei — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 333
Anolis sagrei greyi — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991
Norops sagrei — LINER 1994
Anolis sagrei — MCKEOWN 1996
Anolis sagrei — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 318
Norops sagrei — KÖHLER 2000: 63
Anolis sagrei — CROTHER 2000: 33
Anolis sagrei — SCHOENER, SPILLER & LOSOS 2001
Norops sagrei — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis sagrei sagrei — FLASCHENDRÄGER 2002
Anolis sagrei — BONETTI 2002: 115
Norops sagrai — WILSON & MCCRANIE 2002
Anolis sagrei — CALSBEEK & SMITH 2003
Anolis greyi — GRZIMEK et al. 2003
Anolis sagrei — SCHOENER et al. 2004
Norops sagrei sagrei — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops ordinatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis sagrei ordinatus — POWELL & HENDERSON 2012
Norops sagrei greyi — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops sagrei — MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 2015: 166
Norops ordinatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Norops sagrei sagrei — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Norops sagrei greyi — NICHOLSON et al. 2018
Anolis sagrei — HEIMES 2022
Anolis sagrey — BADILLO-SALDAÑA et al. 2024 (in error)

Anolis sagrei mayensis SMITH & BURGER 1949
Anolis sagrei mayensis — NEILL & ALLEN 1959
Anolis sagrei mayensis — LINER 2007
Anolis sagrei mayensis — ESSER & DAHM 2011 
DistributionMexico (S Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Tabasco, Chiapas, Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Campeche, Jalisco, Sonora, Nayarit), Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, Costa Rica, Cuba, Jamaica, Grenada

USA (introduced to Florida, Georgia, Texas, Louisiana, Hawaii, California, North Carolina),
Isla de la Juventud, Cayman Island, Isla de la Bahia, St. Vincent, Anguilla (introduced)
Angola (introduced, fide Ceriaco & Bauer 2020)
Taiwan (introduced: Norval 2017: 588)
Singapore (introduced)
Ecuador (introduced)
Panama (introduced: Batista et al 2019)
Grand Cayman (introduced)
Brazil (Rio de Janeiro) (introduced) (Oliveira et al. 2018).
Israel (introduced, fide Bar et al. 2021)

greyi: Cuba; Type locality: Cuba, central Camagüey Province to Ciego de Âvila Province.

ordinatus: Bahama islands (Little and Great Bahama banks; Crooked-Acklins Bank; Rum Cay, San Salvador I.; Cay Sal Bank, North Bimini, South Bimini, East Bimini, Gun Cay); Type locality: West Indies; restricted by Schmidt, 1953: 238, to New Providence Island, Bahama Islands.

sagrei: Cuba; Isla de la Juventud; Archipiélago de bs Canarreos; Jardines de la Reina; Archipiélago de Sabana-Camagtiey; Archipiélago de los Coborados; Cayos de San Felipe; western and central Jamaica; Little Cayman I. including satellites; Atlantic coast of México to Belize, including Isla Cozumel; Islas de la Bahia; introduced in Florida and Grand Cayman I.; Type locality: Cuba; restricted by Ruibal, 1964, to La Habana, La Habana Province, Cuba.

mayensis: Type locality: Mexico: Panlao, Campeche; Belize  
TypesSyntypes: MNHN-RA 2430, MNHN-RA 2430A-B, MNHN-RA 6795, MNHN-RA 6795A, MNHN-RA 6797 and MNHN-RA 6797A, MCZ 2171.
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 4170 (11523); H. M. Smith; October 17, 1936 [mayensis]
Holotype: MCZ 7890 [greyi]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.8.28.93-.95 [ordinatus]
Holotype: MCZ 29907 [stejnegeri] 
CommentSynonymy: partly after SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1988. Norops sagrei sagrei and Norops sagrei ordinatus were originally introduced to southern Florida, but they can no longer be distinguished (CONANT & COLLINS 1991). Poe et al. 2017 consider ordinatus and greyi synonyms of sagrei. NICHOLSON et al. 2018 do not recognize mayensis but they do list N. s. greyi and N. ordinatus as valid.

Ecology: Schoener et al. (2001) studied how A. sagrei recovered on 88% of the 66 Bahamas islands that were hit by hurricane Floyd in 1999. Later, Schoener et al. (2005) showed that survival of N. sagrei correlated with vegetation height: the island with the shortest vegetation had nearly the highest survival recorded for any lizard. However, when Leiocephalus carinatus, a predator of N. sagrei (which forages mostly on the ground), was introduced, N. sagrei shifted to taller vegetation.

Evolution: On small islands in Florida, Stuart et al. 2014 found that the lizard Anolis carolinensis moved to higher perches following invasion by Anolis sagrei and, in response, adaptively evolved larger toepads after only 20 generations.

Hybridization across populations: native populations from Cuba are highly genetically structured. In contrast, all invasive populations (in Florida) show evidence of hybridization among native-range lineages (Bock et al. 2021).

Variation: A. sagrei is a widespread and variable species. Among other varieties, red- and orange-headed varieties have been described (see, e.g. various Anole Annals posts for photos).

Subspecies: Norops sagrei sagrei and Norops sagrei ordinatus were originally introduced to southern Florida, but they can no longer be distinguished (CONANT & COLLINS 1991). Anolis sagrei nelsoni, and A. s. luteosignifer, and ordinatus are treated here as full species.

Distribution: Has been erroneously recorded from “Porto Rico” (= Puerto Rico). Reports from Venezuela are doubtful (DONOSO-BARROS 1968). May have been introduced to Jamaica.

Species group: Norops sagrei species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Karyotype: 2n=28, XY (males) or XX (females) (Giovannotti et al. 2016)

Genomics: the genome of A. sagrei was sequenced by Geneva et al. 2021, 2022. 
EtymologyNamed after Raman de la Sagra (1801-1871), a Spanish economist and botanist who lived and worked in Cuba and died in Switzerland. He was Director, Havana Botanical Gardens (1822-1834). 
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