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Anolis semilineatus COPE, 1864

IUCN Red List - Anolis semilineatus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Hispaniolan grass anole, Santo Domingo Anole 
SynonymAnolis semilineatus COPE 1864: 171
Anolis semilineatus — BOULENGER 1885: 68
Anolis semilineatus — COCHRAN 1941
Anolis cochranae WILLIAMS & RAND 1961
Anolis semilineatus — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 339
Anolis semilineatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Chamaelinorops semilineatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Chamaelinorops semilineatus — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (Haiti, Dominican Republic), Ile de la Tortue, Ile Grande Cayemite, Ile a Cabrit, Isla Catalina

Type locality: Santo Domingo; restricted by Hertz, 1976, to Pétionville, Département de l'Ouest, Haiti, but corrected to "República Dominicana" by Wetherbee, 1987.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.5.85, BMNH 1946.8.5.48.
Holotype: MCZ 57660 [cochranae] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 40 mm, females to 36 mm); habitus
attenuate, tail long; 4-5 rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 1-2; 2-3 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles; suboculars in contact with supralabials; 5 postrostrals; 1-4 postmentals; dorsals in about 10 longitudinal rows of enlarged, keeled scales, the inner about as large as ventrals, the outer smaller and merging rapidly into lateral granules; ventrals medium-sized, keeled, imbricate; dewlap large, scales slightly longer than ventrals, in longitudinal series; supradigital scales multicarinate; tail long, more than 2.75 x SVL, moderately compressed, with large, imbricate, keeled scales, very weakly verticillate. Upper side of head nut-brown without pattern, this color continuing on dorsum on 4-6 median dorsal rows, bordered in males by dark lines; a white labial stripe over the auricular opening and forelimb insertion along side, gradually becoming fainter; venter dirty white to orangish yellow with grayish flecks or a dark midventral line; a dark gray ventrolateral stripe; throat with faint grayish flecks; dewlap white; iris steel-blue (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 339). 
CommentFor illustrations see Boulenger, 1885; Cochran, 1941; Hertz, 1976; Schwartz and Henderson, 1985. 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Cochran, D.M. 1941. The herpetology of Hispaniola. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 177: vii + 398 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1864. Contributions to the herpetology of tropical America. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 16: 166-181. - get paper here
  • Crother, Brian I. (ed.) 1999. Caribbean Amphibians and Reptiles. Academic Press, 493 pp.
  • Hertz, P. E. 1976. Anolis alumina, new species of grass anole from the Barahona Peninsula of Hispaniola. Breviora (437): 1-19. - get paper here
  • Hertz, P.E. 1979. Comparative Thermal Biology of Sympatric Grass Anoles (Anolis semilineatus and A. olssoni) in Lowland Hispaniola (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae) Journal of Herpetology 13 (3): 329-333. - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Queiroz, Kevin de; Ling-Ru Chu, and Jonathan B. Losos 1998. A Second Anolis Lizard in Dominica Amber and the Systematics and Ecological Morphology of Dominican Amber Anoles. American Museum Novitates 3249: 23 pp. - get paper here
  • Schmidt, K. P. 1921. Notes on the herpetology of Santo Domingo. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 44: 7-20. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Henderson, R.W. 1985. A guide to the identification of the amphibians and reptiles of the West Indies exclusive of Hispaniola. Milwaukee Public Mus., 165 pp.
  • Vences, M. 2009. Lizard Radiations, in: Gillespie Clague, Encyclopedia of islands. University of California Press, pp. 558-563
  • WERNING, Heiko 2012. Im Bad mit Anolis – ein Besuch bei Uwe Bartelt. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (6): 88-92 - get paper here
  • Wetherbee, D.K. 1987. Further contributions to the history of zoology in Hispaniola. Shebburne, MA, privatelyprinted: 114 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. & Rand, A. S. 1961. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology 2. A review of the Anolis semilineatus group with the description of Anolis cochranae, new species. Breviora (135): 1-11 - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E. 1961. Notes on Hispaniolan herpetology 3. The evolution and relationships of the Anolis semilineatus group. Breviora (136): 1-8 - get paper here
  • Williams,E.E. 1976. West Indian Anoles: a taxonomic and evolutionary summary. 1. Introduction and a species list. Breviora (440): 1-21 - get paper here
  • Yuan, M. L., M. H. Wake, and I. J. Wang. 2019. Phenotypic integration between claw and toepad traits promotes microhabitat specialization in the Anolis adaptive radiation. Evolution 73: 231–244 - get paper here
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