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Anolis singularis WILLIAMS, 1965

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Macaya Green Twig Anole, Porcupine Anole 
SynonymAnolis singularis WILLIAMS 1965: 9
Anolis singularis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 342
Anolis singularis — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Deiroptyx singularis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis singularis — KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016
Deiroptyx singularis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionHispaniola (S Haiti, SW Dominican Republic)

Type locality: Pourcine, Massif de la Hotte, Département du Sud, Haiti.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ 72043. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A moderate-sized species of Anolis that differs from all other Hispaniolan congeners except A. aliniger and the species described below by the combination of having (1) predominantly green overall coloration in life (capable of rapid color change to brown); (2) no white subocular stripe and no white streak onto lateral neck (3) relatively short hind legs (fourth toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening or only slightly beyond ear opening); (4) the ventral scales at midbody smooth; (5) <38 subdigital lamellae on Phalanges II–IV of Toe IV of hind limbs; (6) male dewlap yellowish green or brown (after metachrosis) in life with longitudinal single rows of gorgetal scales or gorgetals not arranged in rows; and (7) a relatively short tail (ratio tail length/SVL <1.7). Among the Anolis species occuring treated in this contribution, A. singularis is most similar to A. aliniger and the species described below. Anolis singularis differs from A. aliniger by (1) the lack of a black axillary blotch (vs. such a blotch usually present in A. aliniger); (2) having the sublabial scales about the same size as scales medially adjacent to this row (vs. sublabial scales much larger than median scales adjacent to them in A. aliniger). For differences between A. singularis and the species described below, see the respective accounts of the new species. 
CommentIllustrations see Williams, 1965.

Only know from it’s holotype.

Conservation. Given its presumably small geographic range and contiuing threat of habitat loss through deforestation, KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016 consider the conservation status of Anolis singularis to be Critically Endangered based on criterion B.1.a. of the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (IUCN, 2012).

Species group: Deiroptyx chlorocyana species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012).

Distribution: see map in KÖHLER & HEDGES 2016: 85 (Fig. 59). The type locality, “Pourcine” is not locatable on even the most detailed topographic maps of Haiti. The locality is georeferenced in the Harvard-MCZ collection at low accuracy as 18.4 N, -74.033 W, covering a large area and wide range of elevations. However there is a community called “Pourcine” not far to the north, near Annette, at 18.484, -74.048 (550 m) that is likely the type locality, not to be confused with another “Pourcine,” near Roseaux, further to the north.

Abundance: only known from the type specimen (Meiri et al. 2017). 
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Köhler, Gunther and S. Blair Hedges 2016. A revision of the green anoles of Hispaniola with description of eight new species (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). NOVITATES CARIBAEA 9: 1-135 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Williams, E. E. 1965. The species of Hispaniolan green anoles (Sauria, Iguanidae). Breviora (227): 1-16. - get paper here
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