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Anolis spectrum PETERS, 1863

IUCN Red List - Anolis spectrum - Near Threatened, NT

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Black-shouldered Ground Anole, Matanzas Anole 
SynonymAnolis spectrum PETERS 1863: 136
Anolis spectrum — BOULENGER 1885: 69
Anolis spectrum sumiderensis — PETERS 1970: 226
Anolis spectrum — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 346
Anolis spectrum — RODRÍGUEZ SCHETTINO 1999: 312
Anolis spectrum — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Anolis spectrum — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 

Type locality: “Cuba”. Restricted to the vicinity of Matanzas and Cárdenas by Gundlach 1875: 358. Further restricted to the “mogotes” at San Miguel de los Baños, 500 m from the swimming pool at San Miguel, before arriving in Río Paredones, Matanzas province, Cuba, by GARRIDO & SCHWARTZ 1972.  
TypesSyntypes: ZMB 421 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size small (SVL in males to 42 mm, in females to 40 mm); habitus
attenuate, tail long; 3 rows of loreals; scales between supraorbitals 0-2 (mode 0); scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles 1-3 (mode 2); 2-4 (mode 2) postmentals; suboculars in contact with supralabials; head deeply concave between canthal ridges; dorsals large, unicarinate, in about 10 rows, grading abruptly into small, almost granular lateral scales, these in turn grading abruptly into large and heavily keeled ventrals; supradigital scales multicarinate; dewlap present in both sexes. Dorsum (males) brownish straw, about 7 dark brown spots on back; a postnuchal grayish spot resembling a pineal eye; a conspicuous, black axillary spot; neck at times slightly vinaceous, leading into a greenish dorsal region; a fine vinaceous line from behind orbit to body-tail junction; insertion of base of tail with hindlimbs ashy white; crura with 2 dark brown stripes, thighs with 3 less conspicuous and clearer brown bands; elbow spot violet to yellow; no labial stripe, although a spot, same color as elbow-spot, below orbit; dewlap large, iodine-colored, with about 5 clearer bands of scales along anterior margin; anal triangle concolor with elbow-spot; iris whitish to yellowish; venter brownish straw, with a slight violet wash midventrally; dorsum (females) uniform brown from neck to tail; head chestnut (as if soiled with red earth); a U-shaped, darker chestnut mark on forehead; about 8 brown spots (like irregular rectangles) on back, very conspicuous; limbs deep chestnut, tail insertion and hindlimb junction ashy white; elbows whitish brown to clear cinnamon; forelimbs with 2 well-defined black dots; eyelids with 2 or 3 brownish or streaked lines or rays; brownish bands on tail and toward base, with 4-5 yellowish rings; 2 whitish spots in anal triangle; venter chestnut; dewlap brownish (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 346). 
CommentFor illustrations see Peters, 1970.

Species group: Anolis alutaceus species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Garrido, O. H. and A. Schwartz. 1972. The Cuban Anolis spectrum complex (Sauria, Iguanidae). Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 85: 509-521. - get paper here
  • Gundlach, J. 1875. An. Soc. Española Hist. Nat. 4: 358
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Peters, G. 1970. Zur Taxionomie und Zoogeographie der kubanischen anolinen Eidechsen (Reptilia, Iguanide). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 46: 197-234. - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1863. Über einige neue Arten der Saurier-Gattung Anolis. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1863 (März): 135-149. - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes (ed.) 1999. The iguanid lizards of Cuba. University Press of Florida, 428 pp.
  • Rodríguez Schettino, Lourdes, Carlos A. Mancina & Vilma Rivalta González 2013. REPTILES OF CUBA: CHECKLIST AND GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (144): 1-96 - get paper here
  • Ruibal, R. 1964. An annotated checklist and key to the anoline lizards of Cuba. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 130 (8): 475-520. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Schwartz, A. and Ogren, L.H. 1956. A collection of reptiles and amphibians from Cuba, with the descriptionof two new forms. Herpetologica 12 (2): 91-110 - get paper here
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