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Anolis sulcifrons COPE, 1899

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Grooved Anole 
SynonymAnolis sulcifrons COPE 1899: 6
Anolis pentaprion pentaprion — PETER et al. 1970: 62
Norops sulcifrons — VILLA et al. 1988
Norops sulcifrons — NICHOLSON 2002
Norops sulcifrons — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops sulcifrons — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionColombia (east base of Cordillera de Bogota and edge of llanos east of Bogota)

Type locality: uncertain, “perhaps from Bogotá, Colombia” fide PETERS & DONOSO-BARROS 1970; restricted to Barranquilla, Colombia, by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950.  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 38750 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: Similar to Anolis pentaprion in squamation, color pattern, and habitus (including a low caudal crest), but differing in having an unpigmented throat lining (black in pentaprion), more loreal rows (sulcifrons, 5-6; pentaprion, 3-4, rarely 5), fewer supralabials to center of eye (sulcifrons, 6-7; pentaprion, 7-10, usually 9), and by the presence of small black spots on the red(?) dewlap (spots absent in pentaprion). Only two of 53 specimens of A. pentaprion had as few as seven supralabials, and then only on one side of the head (8/7 and 7/9), and only five individuals had as many as five rows of loreals (4/5 in three, 5/5 in two specimens) [from MYERS 1971]. NICHOLSON & KÖHLER 2014 provide a redescription of the type of A. sulcifrons.
CommentBelongs to the pentaprion group which includes seven species: fungosus, ibague, ortonii, pentaprion, sulcifrons, utilensis, and vociferans.

Synonymy: Has been synonymized with Anolis pentaprion by SMITH & TAYLOR 1950. Revalidated by MYERS (1971: 36).

DUNN & STUART (1951) rejected the restriction of the type locality. Not listed by KÖHLER 2000.

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012) 
  • Carvajal-Cogollo, J.E.; L.E. Rojas-Murcia. & G. Cárdenas-Arévalo 2020. Reptiles del Caribe colombiano/ Reptiles of the Colombian Caribbean. Tunja: Editorial UPTC, 268 pp. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1899. Contributions to the herpetology of New Granada and Argentina, with descriptions of new forms. Philadelphia Mus. Sci. Bull. (1): 1-19 - get paper here
  • Köhler G. 1996. A new species of anole of the Norops pentaprion group from Isla de Utila, Honduras. (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae) [Norops utilensis]. Senckenbergiana biologica 75 (1/2): 23-31.
  • Myers, C. W. 1971. Central American lizards related to Anolis pentaprion: two new species from the Cordillera de Talamanca. American Museum Novitates (2471): 1-40 [13] - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E. & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2014. A new species of the genus Norops from Darién, Panama, with comments on N. sulcifrons (Cope 1899) (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3895 (2): 225–237 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Restrepo A, Molina-Zuluaga C, Hurtado JP, Marín CM, Daza JM 2017. Amphibians and reptiles from two localities in the northern Andes of Colombia. Check List 13 (4): 203-237 - get paper here
  • Rojas-Morales JA, Marín-Martínez M, Zuluaga-Isaza JC 2019. Rediscovery of the enigmatic forest racer snake, Dendrophidion boshelli Dunn, 1944 (Serpentes, Colubridae): actions for the conservation of a critically endangered species. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 14(4): 577–589 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M. & Taylor, Edward H. 1950. Type localities of Mexican reptiles and amphibians. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 33 (8): 313-380 - get paper here
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