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Anolis tenorioensis KÖHLER, 2011

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymAnolis tenorioensis KÖHLER 2011
Norops tenorioensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops tenorioensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionCosta Rica (Volcán Tenorio)

Type locality: near Laguna Danta, Volcán Tenorio (10.70521°N, 85.03068°W, WGS84), 1160 m elevation, Alajuela Province, Costa Rica.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 91985, an adult male; collected 5 March 2011 by Gunther Köhler, Donald Varela Soto, and Joséph Vargas. Field tag number GK 3324. Paratypes. SMF 91986, UCR 21182, same collecting data as holotype. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized species (SVL in largest specimen 45.0 mm) of the genus Anolis (sensu Poe 2004) that differs from all Lower Central American anoles except Anolis altae, A. carpenteri, A. fortunensis, A. fuscoauratus, A. gruuo, A. kemptoni, A. monteverde and A. pseudokemptoni in that it is short-legged (longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaches only to ear opening), has smooth to slightly keeled ventral scales, and a slender habitus, often delicate. Anolis tenorioensis differs from all the species in the cluster listed above by having the ventral surfaces of body and limbs distinctly reticulated with dark brown pigment (versus immaculate dirty white or cream colored); and a male dewlap that is dark red with brown blotches (versus more or less uniformly reddish orange in A. altae and A. monteverde, uniform orange in A. carpenteri, posterior portion of male dewlap greenish beige, anterior portion reddish orange in A. fortunensis, uniform pinkish brown to red in A. fuscoauratus, more or less uniform dull orange in A. gruuo, posterior portion rose pink, anterior portion burnt orange, small cream colored basal blotch in some populations in A. kemptoni, posterior portion vinaceous, anterior portion orange, anterodorsal corner cream color in A. pseudokemptoni); and by having a divided prenasal scale (versus usually a single elongated prenasal scale). It also differs from A. fortunensis, A. kemptoni, and A. monteverde by having a bilobate hemipenis (versus unilobate). Additionally, it can be differentiated from A. carpenteri by having a brownish dorsal ground color (versus greenish). Anolis tenorioensis is most similar to A. altae and A. monteverde, from which it further differs in several morphometric and pholidotic characteristics, such as relative head length (ratio head length / SVL) and number of scales around midbody (see Table 1, KÖHLER 2011). 
CommentSpecies group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012)

Abundance: only known from its original description (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe name tenorioensis is derived from Volcán Tenorio where the type series of the species was collected and to where it is probably restricted, and the Latin suffix -ensis (denoting place or locality). 
  • Kohler, G. 2011. A new species of anole related to Anolis altae from Volcán Tenorio, Costa Rica (Reptilia, Squamata, Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 3120: 29-42 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2012. Liste der im Jahr 2011 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (3): 46-57 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
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