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Anolis transversalis DUMÉRIL, 1851

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Banded Tree Anole, Transverse Anole
Portuguese: Papa-Vento 
SynonymAnolis transversalis DUMÉRIL in DUMÉRIL & DUMÉRIL 1851: 57
Anolis buckleyi O’SHAUGHNESSY 1880: 492
Anolis transversalis — BOULENGER 1885: 58
Anolis buckleyi — BOULENGER 1885: 58
Anolis buckleyi — SHREVE 1941
Anolis transversalis — WILLIAMS & VANZOLINI 1966: 197
Anolis transversalis — PETERS et al. 1970: 67
Anolis transversalis — DUELLMAN 1978: 202
Dactyloa transversalis — SAVAGE & GUYER 1989: 108
Anolis transversalis — LEHR 2002: 81
Anolis transversalis — PIANKA & VITT 2003: 166
Dactyloa transversalis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa transversalis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionS Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, S Colombia, W Brazil (Amazonas, Acre, Rondônia, Mato Grosso), N Bolivia

Type locality: South America. “Sarayacú, Peru” fide WILLIAMS & VANZOLINI 1966.  
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 2449 (by monotypy) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A green anole, with granular, smooth dorsals, and larger (but relatively small), smooth ventrals. Digital expansions well developed. Body and tail slightly to moderately compressed. Mental large. A distinct row of sublabials at each side, with scales much larger than median scales on chin. A pattern of transverse dark lines or bands, showing sexual dimorphism,present along back: in males forming oblique rows of dashed and/or dotted lines, in females forming wider bands, with or without dotted lines in between. Dewlap in males extending almost to middle of belly, yellow to reddish orange, with light green to yellowish, or grey to bluish grey diagonal lines or scale rows; in females reaching about level of forelimbs, white or yellow, with brown or black transverse bars. Iris blue. Maximum SVL 88 mm (from Avila-Pires 1995: 118).

Description. Anole with maximum SVL in males of 88 mm (O'Shaughnessy, 1880), in females of 86 mm (USNM 200680). Head relatively large, 0.23-0.25 (0.24 ± 0.01, n= 11) times SVL, 1.6-1.8 (1.70 ± 0.06, n= 11) times as long as wide, and 1.0-1.2 (1.11 ± 0.05, n= 11) times as wide as high. Snout relatively long, blunt; frontal region with a shallow depression; occipital region slightly swollen. Neck narrower than head and body. Body and tail moderately compressed. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.37-0.43 (0.39 ± 0.02, n= 7) times SVL, hind limbs 0.66-0.70 (0.68 ± 0.02, n= 6) times, tibia 0.20-0.23 (0.22 ± 0.01, n= 10) times. Tail 1.8-2.1 (1.91 ± 0.10, n= 7) times SVL.
Tongue wide, villose, tip nicked. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth tricuspid.
Rostral about three times as wide as high, higher medially, and with indented posterior margin; just visible from above. Postrostrals 5-10, mainly 7-8, including prenasals. Scales on snout, between nostrils, forming one to three semicircular rows of narrow scales, at each side, parallel to nasals; medial scales wider, polygonal, smooth or rugose. Posteriorly on snout, scales polygonal, smooth, flat, juxtaposed, variable in size; 5-8, mostly 5-6, scales across snout at level of second canthal. Canthus rostralis well defined, with 5-7 canthals, increasing in size posteriorly. Supraorbital semicircles distinct, with 6-10 scales; in contact with each other or separated by one scale. Supraocular region with a group of enlarged, polygonal, smooth scales near supraorbital semicircle, elsewhere with granules. One long supraciliary scale, occasionally followed by a second, shorter one, reaching somewhere between onethird to one-half of orbital length, posteriorly followed by granules. Interparietal several times larger than adjacent scales; parietal region with irregularly polygonal, juxtaposed, smooth scales, smaller posteriorly; 0-2 scales between interparietal and supraocular semicircles. Occipital and supratemporal regions covered with small scales, slightly larger anteriorly. Loreal scales irregularly polygonal, longer than wide or about as wide as long, in longitudinal rows, slightly or distinctly increasing in size toward supralabials; mostly with a keel near their lower margin, some smooth; 3-5, mostly four, scales in a vertical row at level of second canthal. Suboculars 6-9, large, smooth, of which 3-5, mostly four, in contact with supralabials. Supralabials 7-12, 6-10 to below centre of eye. Temporal region with small, granular scales, separated from eyelids by a few rows of larger scales, and from supratemporal region by a double row of larger scales. Ear-opening relatively small, vertically oval, its lower margin at level of commissure of mouth; with smooth margin and short auditory meatus.
Mental large, roughly forming two symmetrical semicircles, partially separated by a median cleft, which continues as a midventral sulcus on anterior part of chin; bordered at each side of sulcus by first infralabial, one sublabial, and two or three small, median scales. Infralabials 6-10, mostly 7-8, 5-9 to below centre of eye. Chin with a row of large, smooth or broadly keeled sublabials, 3-5 in contact with infralabials; medially scales distinctly smaller, decreasing in size toward midventral line and posteriad. Scales on throat small, almost granular. Dewlap well developed in males, extending almost to middle of belly, with approximately longitudinal, widely separated rows of small scales laterally, and similar or slightly larger ones along rim. Dewlap in females smaller, reaching level of forelimbs. Nape with granular scales, similar to dorsals.
Dorsals and scales on flanks granular, juxtaposed, smooth; a double row of slightly larger vertebral scales. Ventrals distinctly larger, roundish or squarish, subimbricate, smooth. Gradual transition between scales on flanks and ventrals. Scales around midbody 152-203 (170.9 ± 16.8, n= 11). Preanal plate with small, relatively uniform scales. Enlarged postanal scales may be present.
Base of tail wide, dorsally and laterally with numerous small, smooth, juxtaposed to subimbricate scales, ventrally scales increasing in size toward midventral line, subimbricate. Distally, scales in longitudinal rows, with a pair of dorsal, and a pair of ventral rows of larger, keeled scales, keels forming longitudinal ridges; lateral scales smooth, except those in the row adjacent to ventrals, which are slightly larger and distally become keeled; scales arranged in verticils, formed by 4-6 pairs of ventral scales and 6-8 pairs of dorsal scales.
Scales on forelimbs slightly larger than dorsals, smooth, juxtaposed to subimbricate, except on anterior aspect of forearms, where they are about the size of ventrals and subimbricate. Hind limbs with smooth scales, about the size of ventrals and subimbricate on anterior aspect of thighs, and anterior and posterior aspects of lower legs; gradually changing into granular toward posterior aspect of thighs; juxtaposed, intermediate in size, on lateral aspects of lower legs. Digital expansion well developed; 27-35 (30.0 ± 2.1, n= 22,11 specimens) lamellae under fourth finger, 19-25 (21.9 ± 1.5, n= 22, 11 specimens) to end of digital expansion; 37-50 (45.0 ± 3.8, n= 14, 9 specimens) lamellae under fourth toe, 31-41 (35.9 ± 3.1, n= 19, 11 specimens) to end of digital expansion (all counts starting from the membrane between third and fourth digits) (from Avila-Pires 1995: 118).

Coloration: Colour in life of MPEG 15877 (female), dorsally light green and brown, with dark brown transverse bands and black dots; ventrally white with black dots, dewlap white with black transverse bars; iris vivid sky blue (66). A male was observed to change colour (when handled) from completely green with transverse, black dotted lines, to gold-yellow with narrow dark bands on tail; dewlap (during yellow phase) gold-yellow with lemon-yellow scales (M. Martins, in lit. and slides). Descriptions of colour in life were also given by Dixon & Soini (1975, 1986), and Duellman (1978), who both referred to the bright blue iris (both sexes examined). Dixon & Soini (1975, 1986) described female dewlap as chocolate brown with scale rows and ventral edge yellowish tan, and male dewlap varying from lemon-orange to reddish orange, with scale rows light green to yellowish. Duellman (1978) reported the dewlap as yellow with bold black or dark brown vertical bars, or narrow grey or bluish grey diagonal lines.

Colour pattern shows sexual dimorphism. Males, in preservative (partially bleached), with general colour cream; head with a few to several small, irregular, dark spots; neck with irregularly distributed flecks or dots, which along body form oblique rows, either consisting of dotted lines, or of dashed lines alternating with large dotted lines; flecks may appear also on ventral region, although scattered. Dewlap of same colour as body, with dark dots along the scale rows. Females with several dark spots on head dorsally, and on chin; a dark band across supraoculars may be present, continuing through eye to chin, meeting or not its opposite number mid-ventrally. Dewlap with two transverse dark bands. Back with four to six wide, transverse, dark bands, from nape to base of tail, those between limbs more developed, wider along vertebral region, laterally narrower or reduced to a dark stripe, and continuing ventrally but mostly not meeting each other mid-ventrally Between dark bands uniformly coloured, or with dots in poorly defined oblique lines dorsally, scattered ventrally. Limbs variably patterned, with dots or transverse lines, which may continue on the underside. Tail with dark bands, lighter on the underside (from Avila-Pires 1995: 120). 
CommentDue to sexually dimorphic color pattern, males were described as another species (A. buckleyi) by O’SHAUGHNESSY 1880.

Species groups: Dactyloa punctata species group (fide NICHOLSON et al. 2012). 
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