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Anolis trinitatis REINHARDT & LÜTKEN, 1862

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Saint Vincent Bush Anole, Saint Vincent's bush anole, Trinidad Anole 
SynonymAnolis trinitatis REINHARDT & LÜTKEN 1862: 269
Anolis vincentii GARMAN 1887: 46
Anolis vincenti — BARBOUR 1929: 224
Anolis trinitatis trinitatis — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959: 212
Anolis trinitatis vincentii — UNDERWOOD in WILLIAMS et al. 1959: 213
Anolis trinitatis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 349
Anolis trinitatus [sic] — CREER et al. 2001
Anolis trinitatus [sic] — NICHOLSON et al. 2005
Dactyloa trinitatis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Dactyloa trinitatis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionLesser Antilles: St. Vincent, St. Lucia, Chateaubelair I
Introduced to Trinidad (Lazell 1972)

Type locality: “Trinidad”. Revised to “Kingstown, St. Vincent” by Lazell 1972.  
ReproductionAnolis trinitatis hybridizes with the likewise introduced Anolis aeneus on Trinidad (Lazell 1972). However, hybrids show greatly reduced reproductive fitness (Gorman et al. 1971). 
TypesHolotype: ZMUC (UZM) R.37145.
Syntypes: ANSP 23008; West Indies, St. Vincent, UMMZ, MCZ, CAS, USNM 39301, 39302 [Anolis vincenti] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Size moderate (SVL in males to 74 mm, in females to 57 mm); 3-5
rows of loreals; 0 scales between supraorbital semicircles; 0 scales between inter-parietal and supraorbital semicircles; 5-6 postmentals; 3-4 postrostrals; sublabials fragment into undistinguished scales at level of orbit; dorsal scales weakly keeled, juxtaposed, 2 dorsalmost rows enlarged, grading into granular laterals; ventrals cycloid, smooth, imbricate, larger than dorsals; supradigital scales weakly multi-carinate; 4-5 vertical rows of scales/10th caudal verticil; 1 enlarged middorsal caudal scale row. Dorsum (male) bright green or blue-green shading to blue or blue-gray; bright yellow on lower jaw and venter; orbital area bright blue to blue-gray, or with faint grayish mottling, or sooty black; dewlap butter-yellow, usually with pale bluish scales, or with greenish wash; dorsum (females) duller; faint flank stripe present; frequently with mottled or herringbone middorsal pattern; dewlap small, not distinctively colored (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 349). 
CommentSynonymy: BOULENGER (1885) listed Anolis trinitatis (and Anolis aeneus) as synonyms of Anolis alligator, which is now A. roquet.

Karyotype: Anolis trinitatis and Anolis aeneus have 36 and 34 chromosomes, respectively. Hybrids have 35 chromosomes (Gorman et al. 1968).

Distribution: probably in Venezuela (peninsula de Paria) fide DONOSO-BARROS 1968. 
  • Barbour, T. & LOVERIDGE,A. 1929. Typical reptiles and amphibians in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. [type catalogue] Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 69: 205-360 - get paper here
  • Creer, Douglas A., Kevin de Queiroz, Todd R. Jackman, Jonathan B. Losos and Allan Larson 2001. Systematics of the Anolis roquet series of the southern Lesser Antillies. Journal of Herpetology 35 (3): 428-441 - get paper here
  • Donoso-Barros, R. 1968. The lizards of Venezuela (checklist and key). Carib. J. Sci. 8 (3-4): 105-122
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Gorman, G. C.;Yang, S. Y. 1975. A low level of backcrossing between the hybridizing Anolis lizards of Trinidad. Herpetologica 31 (2): 196-198 - get paper here
  • Gorman, G.C. 1969. The zoogeography of Lesser Antillean Anolis lizards; an analysis based upon chromosomes and lactic dehydrogenases. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138 (3): 53-80. - get paper here
  • Gorman, George 2010. Rip Van Winkle attends the Anolis Symposium, wakes up, and shares some thoughts. Anolis Newsletter VI: 56-63 - get paper here
  • Gorman, George C. & Atkins, Leonard 1968. The relationships of the Anolis of the roquet species group (Sauria: Iguanidae). III. Comparative study of display behavior. Breviora (284): 1-31 - get paper here
  • Gorman, George C.;Atkins, Leonard 1968. Natural hybridization between two sibling species of Anolis lizards: Chromosome cytology. Science 159 (March): 1358-1360 - get paper here
  • Gorman, George, Paul Licht, Herbert C. Desshauser, and Julius O. Boos 1971. Reproductive Failure Among the Hybridizing Anolis Lizards of Trinidad. Systematic Zoology 20: 1–18 - get paper here
  • Gravelle, K. & C.A. Simon 1980. Field Observations on the Use of the Tongue-Jacobson's Organ System in Two Iguanid Lizards, Sceloporus jarrovi and Anolis trinitatis Copeia 1980 (2): 356-359. - get paper here
  • Helmus, Matthew R.; Jocelyn E. Behm, Wendy A.M. Jesse, Jason J. Kolbe,Jacintha Ellers, and Jonathan B. Losos 2016. EXOTICS EXHIBIT MORE EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY THAN NATIVES: A COMPARISON OF THE ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF EXOTIC AND NATIVE ANOLE LIZARDS. In: Invasion Genetics: The Baker and Stebbins Legacy, First Edition. Edited by Spencer C. H. Barrett, Robert I. Colautti, Katrina M. Dlugosch, and Loren H. Rieseberg; John Wiley & Sons, pp. 122-138 (publication year given as 2017 in the book) - get paper here
  • Heselhaus, Ralf & Schmidt, Matthias 1995. Caribbean Anoles. TFH Publications, Neptune City, NJ, 65 pp.
  • Hite, Jessica L.; Gomez, Carlos A. Rodriguez; Larimer, Samantha C.; Diaz-Lameiro, Alondra M.; Powell, Robert. 2008. Anoles of St. Vincent (Squamata: Polychrotidae): population densities and structural habitat use. Carib. J. Sci. 44 (1):102-115 - get paper here
  • Lazell,J.D. 1972. The anoles (Sauria: Iguanidae) of the lesser Antilles. Bull. Mus. comp. Zool. Harvard 143 (1): 1-115 - get paper here
  • Nicholson, K. E., R. E. Glor, J. J. Kolbe, A. Larson, S. B. Hedges, and J. B. Losos 2005. Mainland colonization by island lizards. Journal of Biogeography 32: 929–938 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2012. It is time for a new classification of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3477: 1–108 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2004. Phylogeny of anoles. Herpetological Monographs 18: 37-89 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Powell, Robert and Robert W. Henderson 2017. Notes on the diets of some amphibians and reptiles of the St. Vincent and Grenada Banks (Lesser Antilles). IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 24 (2): 135–138 - get paper here
  • Reinhardt, JOHANNES & CHRISTIAN FREDERIK LÜTKEN 1862. Bidrag tii det vestindiske Öriges og navnligen tii de dansk-vestindiske Oers Herpetologie. Vidensk. Meddel. Naturhist. For. Kjöbenhavn (10-18): 153-291 [1862] - get paper here
  • Schmidt, J. 1980. Warum eigentlich immer Anolis carolinensis? Teil 2. Herpetofauna 2 (5): 22-25 - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Malhotra, A. and Surget-Groba, Y. 2015. Widespread parallel population adaptation to climate variation across a radiation: implications for adaptation to climate change. Molecular Ecology 24: 1019–1030. doi: 10.1111/mec.13093 - get paper here
  • Thorpe, R. S., Barlow, A., Surget-Groba, Y., & Malhotra, A. 2018. Multilocus phylogeny, species age and biogeography of the Lesser Antillean anoles. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution - get paper here
  • Williams, Ernest E.; Quesnel, Victor C.; Kenny, Julian S.; Underwood,G. 1959. The anoles of the Eastern Caribbean (Sauria, Iguanidae) Part. I. Preface; Part II. Two sibling species of anoles in Trinidad; Part. III. Revisionary notes. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 121 (5): 185-226 + 1 plate - get paper here
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