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Anolis triumphalis (NICHOLSON & KÖHLER, 2014)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymNorops triumphalis NICHOLSON & KÖHLER 2014
Anolis triumphalis — TARR et al. 2018
Norops triumphalis — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionPanama (Darién)

Type locality: main road (via Puerto Kimba) adjacent to the park (Filo del Tallo), 8.450981°N, 78.00002°W, 128 m elevation, Darién, Panama  
TypesHolotype: SMF 98033, an adult male from Filo del Tallo, collected 23 June 2012 by Kirsten E. Nicholson, Sarah Burton, John G. Phillips, and David Laurencio. Field tag number KEN 0955. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A small species (SVL in only known adult male 54.5 mm) of the genus Norops (sensu Nicholson et al. 2012) that differs from all Mexican and Central American anoles by having a combination of (1) smooth, bulging, subimbricate ventral scales; (2) a short tail, ratio tail length/SVL 1.54; (3) short hind legs, longest toe of adpressed hind leg reaching to ear opening, ratio shank length/SVL 0.24; (4) a lichenous body pattern; and (5) a very large yellowish orange dewlap in males. In external morphology, N. triumphalis is most similar to the species of the N. pentaprion group (see introduction). Norops triumphalis differs from the other species in the N. pentaprion group except N. sulcifrons by having a very large orange male dewlap (vs. a large red or pink dewlap) and an unpigmented throat lining. Norops triumphalis differs from N. sulcifrons by having the supracaudal scales not forming a serrated crest (vs. a distinct serrated caudal crest present in N. sulcifrons), 4 supracaudal scales per segment (vs. 3 supracaudal scales per segment in N. sulcifrons), greatly enlarged outer postmental scales, about four times the size of adjacent medial scales (vs. moderately enlarged outer postmental scales, about twice the size of adjacent medial scales, in N. sulcifrons), and no enlarged postcloacal scales in males (vs. a pair of moderately enlarged postcloacal scales present in male N. sulcifrons). Norops triumphalis differs from N. ibague and N. ortoni by having bulging, granular to subimbricate ventral scales at midbody (vs. flat and imbricate in N. ibague and N. ortoni). Norops triumphalis differs further from N. ibague by having 2 scales between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles (vs. interparietal and supraorbital semicircles broadly in contact in N. ibague). 
CommentAbundance: only known from the type specimen (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyThe name triumphalis (Latin for “of victory”) is an adjective referring to the moment of elation experienced by KEN and her field party at the moment of capture of the holotype of this species, given that the specimen was racing across the road in front of their moving vehicle. 
  • Kwet, Axel 2015. Liste der im Jahr 2014 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2015 (3): 50-64 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E. & GUNTHER KÖHLER 2014. A new species of the genus Norops from Darién, Panama, with comments on N. sulcifrons (Cope 1899) (Reptilia, Squamata, Dactyloidae). Zootaxa 3895 (2): 225–237 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Tarr, S. , Meiri, S., Hicks, J. J. and Algar, A. C. 2018. A biogeographic reversal in sexual size dimorphism along a continental temperature gradient. Ecography, doi:10.1111/ecog.03593 - get paper here
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