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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Urrao anole
S: Anolis de Urrao 
Norops urraoi — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionColombia (Urrao municipality, Antioquia department), elevation 1700 - 2220 m

Type locality: departament of Antioquia, Urrao municipality, paddock on the banks of Río Penderisco: 6.314253, -76.138528, 1822 m (= 6°18'51.3"N, 76°08'18.7"W)  
Reproductionoviparous (manual imputation, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MHUA R 12733; adult male, collected by B. Rendón-Valencia and F.A. Grisales-Martínez on 31 August, 2014 (Figs 1, 3; Table 1). Paratypes. n = 38: males = 21, females = 17 (all from Antioquia, Colombia. Table1). MHUA R 12519-20-21, Urrao municipality, Corregimiento La Encarnación, vereda El Maravillo, Finca La Lucía, 6,51669, -76,1484, 2120 m, collected on 2012 by J.M. Daza; MHUA R 12521, 12523, 12525, 12526, 12528, 12529, 12530, 12532, 12535, 12536, 12539, 12540, 12541, 12544, 12545, Urrao municipality, Corregimiento La Encarnación, vereda El Maravillo, 6.52133, -76.14022, 2156 m, collected on 2012 by J.M. Daza; MHUA R 12731-32, Urrao municipality, in the urban area, paddock on the banks of river Penderisco, 6.314434, -76.138444, 1816 m, collected on 31 August, 2014 by B. Rendón-Valencia and F.A. Grisales-Martínez; CSJ 455, 467, 814, 819, 822-23, 837, 839, Urrao municipality, Las Orquideas National Park, vereda Calles, collected by M.A. Serna and H. Echeverri; CSJ 635; 703,815, 843, 848, 856, 858-59, 1028, 1074-75, Urrao municipality, La Magdalena, collected by M.A. Serna and H. Echeverri. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. An small brown-greenish Anolis assigned to the Anolis fuscoauratus group by phylogenetic evidence presented in this study (see phylogenetic results) and by having the following combination of morphological characters described by Williams (1976) and Ayala & Williams (1988): 1) Head with small frontal depression and keeled scales not enlarged (similar in size to the dorsal scales); 2) small dorsal scales, uniform and usually keeled (smaller than ventral scales); 3) smooth ventral scales (sometimes with a low keeling); 4) broad and well-defined toes lamellae; 5) less than 20 lamellae on phalanges II and III of the fourth toe; and 6) round and slender tail without ridge.
Because the Anolis fuscoauratus group is not recognized in the most comprehensive phylogeny to date (i.e., Poe et al. 2017), for our taxonomic account we compared the new taxon with species closely related or distributed in the same biogeographic regions (e.g., Central America, Pacific lowlands and the northern Andes). Anolis urraoi sp. nov. differs from other species in the A. fuscoauratus group from Central America by having a male dewlap bright orange anteriorly and light rose color on the posterior third or half. In contrast, males of Anolis elcopeensis Poe, Scarpetta & Schaad 2015, Anolis gruuo Köhler, Ponce, Sunyer & Batista 2007, Anolis carpenteri Echelle, Echelle & Fitch 1971 and Anolis polylepis Peters 1874 all have orange dewlap; Anolis kemptoni Dunn 1940 and Anolis pseudokemptoni Köhler, Ponce, Sunyer & Batista 2007 have red-orange anterior and pink posterior male dewlap; Anolis fortunensis Arosemena & Ibáñez 1993 has red anterior and orange posterior male dewlap; Anolis monteverde Köhler 2009 yellow ocher to orange yellow in the basal portion and reddish-orange in the distal portion of the male dewlap; Anolis altae Dunn 1930 with a more or less uniformly reddish-orange male dewlap; Anolis limifrons Cope 1862 with a dull white with a small basal orange blotch male dewlap, Anolis apletophallus Köhler & Sunyer 2008 with a uniformly dull white, almost uniformly orange male dewlap; Anolis tenorioensis Köhler 2011 with a dark red with brown blotches male dewlap. Furthermore, these species have a geographic distribution in the mid-highlands of lower Central America and A. urraoi sp. nov. is distributed in northwestern Andes in South America.
Anolis urraoi sp. nov. is distinguished from the South America members of A. fuscoauratus group by male dewlap and meristic patterns. A. urraoi sp. nov. have a male dewlap bright orange anteriorly and light rose color on the posterior third or half (vs. A. tolimensis with solid reddish-orange male dewlap; A. antonii with a reddish- orange anterior and pink posterior male dewlap; A. mariarum with orange-red anterior and yellow posterior / orange-red anterior and pink posterior male dewlap; A. maculiventris with orange peripherally and red medially male dewlap; A. medemi with pink anterior and orange posterior male dewlap; A. trachyderma Cope 1875 with a reddish-orange with black scales male dewlap; A. fuscoauratus with solid pink male dewlap; A. bocourti Cope 1875 and A. scapularis Boulenger 1908 have a white male dewlap (the validity of this species has been questioned and it has been considered as a synonym of A. fuscoauratus, see Poe & Yañez-Miranda 2008) (Figure 4).
Anolis urraoi sp. nov. have three to four scales between supraocular semicircles (vs. A. antonii one scale), 10 to 18 scales across the snout in the second canthal (vs. A. mariarum eight to 10 scales; A. tolimensis nine to 10 scales; A. maculiventris 10 to 14 scales), six or eight loreal rows (vs. A. antonii five); ventral scales slightly to strongly keeled (vs. ventral scales smooth to faintly keeled in A. tolimensis, A. antonii, and A. mariarum). Anolis urraoi sp. nov. is distributed in the northwestern Andes on the western slope of the Cordillera Occidental between 1700 and 2220 m meters above sea level. In contrast A. medemi is distributed in the Gorgona Island on the Pacific coast of Colombia; A. maculiventris in the Pacific lowlands and foothills of the Cordillera Occidental; A. fuscoauratus in the Magdalena river valley and the Amazonian region; A. trachyderma, A. bocourti, and A. scapularis in the Amazonian region. Additional characteristics from the Andean fuscoauratoid group are described in the table 2. 
CommentHabitat: Males are commonly seen on bushes and stakes (up to 3 meters high) performing display, while females are usually elusive and occupying low perches 
EtymologyThe specific name urraoi refers to the locality where the new species was found, the Urrao municipality, a town on the northwestern Andes in Antioquia. 
  • GRISALES-MARTÍNEZ, FREDDY A.; JULIÁN A. VELASCO, WILMAR BOLÍVAR, ERNEST E. WILLIAMS, JUAN M. DAZA 2017. The taxonomic and phylogenetic status of some poorly known Anolis species from the Andes of Colombia with the description of a nomen nudum taxon. Zootaxa 4303 (2): 213–230 - get paper here
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
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