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Anolis utilensis (KÖHLER, 1996)

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Higher TaxaDactyloidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Utila Anole 
SynonymNorops utilensis KÖHLER 1996
Norops utilensis — KÖHLER 2000: 64
Norops utilensis — NICHOLSON 2002
Anolis utilensis — POWELL 2003: 38
Norops utilensis — NICHOLSON et al. 2012
Norops utilensis — MCCRANIE & KÖHLER 2015: 196 
DistributionHonduras (Islas de la Bahia: Utila)

Type locality: Islas de la Bahia: Utila, Honduras.  
TypesHolotype: SMF 77051, Adult male; paratypes: SMF, UNAH 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized (snout-vent length 59 mm in largest specimen), short-legged Norops, with transverse processes on some autotomous caudal vertebrae, white fungus-like markings are present on a gray dorsum. The dewlap is red and mouth and throat lining black. It can be distinguished from all other beta anoles (= Norops), except those of the pentaprion group, by the following combination of characters: all scales smooth, except on tail where they are strongly keeled; middorsal caudal scales not raised in serrated crest; upper trunk with flat granules disposed in oblique rows, except for about a dozen longitudinal rows on middorsum; belly with conical granules, slightly larger than dorsals. Dorsal head scales relatively large, frontal ridges weak, canthal ridges present; elongated supraciliary scales absent; 4-5 horizontal loreal rows; suboculars in contact with supralabials; no enlarged postanal scales. The granular instead of lamellar proximal subdigitals (under phalanx ii) (Fig. 3) immediately distinguishes Norops utilensis n. sp. from the remaining species in the pentaprion group. In addition, N. utilensis can be further distinguished from its close relative N. pentaprion by a greater tail length / SVL ratio (1.47-1.64, x = 1.55 in 7 utilensis vs. 1.05-1.42, x = 1.26 in 27 pentaprion) and the number of scales between the supraorbital semicircles (0 in utilensis und usually 1, rarely 0, in pentaprion). The strongly carinate scales on top of the tail, 0 instead of 2 scales between supraorbital semicircles, and the absence of bony parietal protuberances will separate the species from N. fungosus. From N. sulcifrons it differs further by having a black instead of an unpigmented throat lining and by the number of supralabials to center of eye (7-9 in utilensis vs. 6-7 in sulcifrons). From N. vociferans it can be distinguished by having smooth mid-dorsal granules (some mid-dorsal granules keeled in vociferans), the absence of a dark interorbital bar, and the absence of enlarged postanal scales in males. From N. ortonii it differs by having smooth instead of feebly keeled dorsals, granular instead of imbricate ventrals, and the absence of a dark interorbital bar. From N. ibague it can be distinguished by one scale between interparietal and supraorbital semicircles (in contact in N. ibague), one scale between nasal and rostral, and granular instead of imbricate ventrals. 
CommentBelongs to the pentaprion group which includes seven species: fungosus, ibague, ortonii, pentaprion, sulcifrons, utilensis, and vociferans.

Synonymy: Poe considers the diagnostic characters suggested by Köhler as insufficient to distinguish between A. beckeri and utilensis (Poe 2016). For instance, “the purported diagnostic traits of A. utilensis have changed over time (compare the original diagnosis of A. utilensis ; G. Köhler. 1996. Senckenbergiana Biologica 76:19–28) to that of this volume and the authors note that some individuals they assign to A. zeus lack the single diagnostic trait of the species (p. 98) (Poe 2016). Not listed by Nicholson et al. 2018.

Species group: Norops auratus Species Group (fide Nicholson et al. 2012)

Abundance: only known from the type locality (Meiri et al. 2017). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Brown, T. W., D. Maryon, and G. Lonsdale. 2017. Habitat diversification and natural history observations in Norops utilensis (Squamata; Dactyloidae) on Isla de Utila, Honduras. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 974–979 - get paper here
  • Gutsche, A. 2005. The World's Most Endangered Anole? Iguana 12(4): 240–243
  • Gutsche, A.; McCranie, J.R. & Nicholson, K.E. 2004. Field observations on a nesting site of Norops utilensis KÖHLER 1996 (Reptilia: Squamata) with comments about its conservation status. Salamandra 40 (3-4): 297-302 - get paper here
  • Hallmen, M. & Huy, A. 2012. Anolis utilensis (Utila anole) habitat. Herpetological Review 43: 642-643 - get paper here
  • Hedges SB, Powell R, Henderson RW, Hanson S, and Murphy JC 2019. Definition of the Caribbean Islands biogeographic region, with checklist and recommendations for standardized common names of amphibians and reptiles. Caribbean Herpetology 67: 1–53
  • Köhler G. 1996. A new species of anole of the Norops pentaprion group from Isla de Utila, Honduras. (Reptilia: Sauria: Iguanidae) [Norops utilensis]. Senckenbergiana biologica 75 (1/2): 23-31.
  • Köhler, G. 1996. Additions to the known herpetofauna of the Isla de Utila (Islas de la Bahia, Honduras) with description of a new species of the genus Norops (Reptilia: Iguanidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 76 (1/2): 19-28.
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2010. A revision of the Central American species related to Anolis pentaprion with the resurrection of A. beckeri and the description of a new species (Squamata: Polychrotidae). Zootaxa 2354: 1–18 - get paper here
  • KÖHLER, GUNTHER 2014. Characters of external morphology used in Anolis taxonomy—Definition of terms, advice on usage, and illustrated examples. Zootaxa 3774 (2): 201–257 - get paper here
  • Kramer, J. 2010. Utilas Anolis. Iguana Rundschreiben 23 (1): 5-9
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. and Gunther Köhler 2015. The Anoles (Reptilia: Squamata: Dactyloidae: Anolis: Norops) of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard (Special Publication Series, No. 1): 1-280 [review in Q. J. Biol. 91: 227] - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Aaron M. Bauer, Allen Allison, Fernando Castro-Herrera, Laurent Chirio, Guarino Colli, Indraneil Das, Tiffany M. Doan, Frank Glaw, Lee L. Grismer, Marinus Hoogmoed, Fred Kraus, Matthew LeBreton, Danny Meirte, Zoltán T. Nagy, Cristiano d 2017. Extinct, obscure or imaginary: the lizard species with the smallest ranges. Diversity and Distributions - get paper here
  • Nicholson KE, C. Guyer, and JG Phillips 2017. Biogeographic Origin of Mainland Norops (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Assumptions Inhibiting Progress in Comparative Biology (eds. Crother and Parenti), pp. 169–184
  • Nicholson, K.E. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and a test of the current infrageneric classification of Norops (beta Anolis). Herpetological Monographs 16: 93-120 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2013. 1986 Redux: New genera of anoles (Squamata: Dactyloidae) are unwarranted. Zootaxa 3626 (2): 295–299 - get paper here
  • Poe, S. 2016. Book review: The Anoles of Honduras: Systematics, Dis­ tribution, and Conservation. Q. Rev. Biol. 91: 227 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2001. Neuerungen in der Systematik der mittelamerikanischen Saumfinger der Gattung Norops seit 1996. Iguana Rundschreiben 14 (2): 19-28
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
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