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Anolis wilsoni (KÖHLER, TOWNSEND & PETERSEN, 2016)

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Higher TaxaAnolidae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common Names 
SynonymNorops wilsoni KÖHLER, TOWNSEND & PETERSEN 2016: 27
Norops wilsoni — KWET 2017
Anolis wilsoni — TARR et al. 2018
Norops wilsoni — NICHOLSON et al. 2018 
DistributionN Honduras (Atlantic slopes of the Cordillera Nombre de Dios in the departments of Atlántida and Colón), elevation 0-980 m.

Type locality: Parque Nacional Pico Bonito, Estación Forestal CURLA, 15.70167°N, 86.84667°W, elev. 170 m asl, Departamento de Atlántida, Honduras  
TypesHolotype: SMF 78040, adult male; collected by Gunther Köhler on 23 July 1995; original field number GK-044.
Paratypes: All from Parque Nacional Pico Bonito, Estación Forestal CURLA, 15.70167°N, 86.84667°W, 120–160 m, Departamento Atlántida, Honduras: SMF 78039, 79057–58, collected by Gunther Köhler on 22 July 1995; SMF 78704–07, 81055, collected by Gunther Köhler on 23 March 1996; SMF 78708–09, collected by Gunther Köhler on 27 March 1996; SMF 79943–46, 79948–50, collected by James R. McCranie and Larry David Wilson on 8 June 1996. SMF 78039, 78705–06, 79943–44, 79949 are adult males, the remaining paratypes are adult females. SMF 79057 and 81055 are cleared and stained specimens. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized (maximum SVL 59.0 mm in males, 53 mm in females) species (our Species C of the Norops tropidonotus complex) of the genus Norops (sensu Nicholson et al., 2012) that is most similar in ex- ternal morphology to N. tropidonotus, N. compressicauda, N. spilorhipis, N. mccraniei, and N. wampuensis. These five species and N. wilsoni are differentiated from all other anoles by a combination of the following characters: (1) distinctly enlarged and strongly keeled dorsal scale rows, (2) a tube-like axillary pocket, (3) scales anterior to ear opening keeled and much larger than small and granular scales posterior to ear opening, and (4) a lack of enlarged postcloacal scales in males. Norops wilsoni differs from the other five species in the Norops tropidonotus com- plex by mean genetic distances of 3.6–4.5%. Norops wilsoni can be distinguished from N. compressicauda by the presence of a large orange male dewlap with a dark central streak (vs. a pink male dewlap in N. compressicauda) and a brownish-red iris color (vs. blue in N. compressicauda). Norops wilsoni differs from N. tropidonotus by the presence of a large, bilobed hemipenis with a large asulcate processus (vs. hemipenis small, unilobate without an asulcate processus in N. tropidonotus). Norops wilsoni differs from N. wampuensis by the presence of a distinct dark streak present in the male dewlap and a slightly larger size reaching 59.0 mm in males, 53 mm in females (vs. distinct dark central streak absent in male dewlap and males and females reaching 51 mm SVL in N. wampuensis). Norops wilsoni differs from N. spilorhipis and from N. mccraniei in having a hemipenis with a single asulcate fin- ger-like processus at the base of the apex (vs. a single asulcate ridge-like processus on the distal part of the truncus in N. spilorhipis and two asulcate processi present, a finger-like one at the base of the apex and a conical one at the base of the truncus in N. mccraniei, respectively). Norops wilsoni differs further from N. mccraniei by its shorter tail (ratio tail length/SVL 1.62–1.78, mean 1.70 in males and 1.44–1.53, mean 1.48, in females of N. wilsoni vs. 1.71–1.85, mean, 1.78 in males and 1.60–1.72, mean, 1.66, in females of N. mccraniei) and fewer scales around midbody (62–78, mean 69.4 in N. wilsoni vs. 70–94, mean 76.9, in N. mccraniei), as well as in the mean values of several additional morphometric and scalation characters (see Table 2, Fig. 3). Also, Norops wilsoni differs further from N. mccraniei in male dewlap coloration (orange with a large diffuse dark central area in N. wilsoni vs. orange with a central dark streak in N. mccraniei). Norops wilsoni differs from the somewhat similar Central American spe- cies N. humilis, N. marsupialis, N. quaggulus, and N. uniformis by the presence of keeled scales anterior to the ear opening, much larger than small and granular scales posterior to ear opening, and a larger size, reaching 59.0 mm in males, 53 mm in females (vs. scales anterior and posterior to ear opening subequal, small, and granular, SVL of adults < 51 mm in N. humilis, < 49 mm in N. marsupialis, < 42 mm in N. quaggulus, and < 42 mm in N. uniformis, respectively). 
CommentDistribution: see map in KÖHLER et al. 2016: 27 (Fig. 9).

Species group: Norops tropidonotus complex (with N. compressicauda, N. tropidonotus, N. wampuensis, N. mccraniei, N. wilsoni, N. spilorhipis) fide Köhler et al. 2016.

Synonymy: Mulcahy et al. 2022 discovered a study (Köhler et al. 2016) with 52 associated sequences submitted to GenBank as A. tropidonotus, of which only four were considered A. tropidonotus by the submitting authors, i.e. Köhler et al. 2016. The others 48 sequences represent two newly named species (A. mccranei and A. wilsoni) and a third resurrected species (A. spilorhipis). 
Etymology“The specific name wilsoni honors our friend and colleague Larry David Wilson, who is one of the leading authorities of the Honduran herpetofauna. Since the 1960s, Larry has been working on the taxonomy, zoogeography, and conservation of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras and has written numerous scientific articles and monographic treatments of its herpetofauna.” [KÖHLER et al. 2016]. 
  • Köhler, Gunther, Josiah H. Townsend and Claus Bo P. Petersen. 2016. Taxonomic revision of the Norops tropidonotus complex (Squamata, Dactyloidae), with the resurrection of N. spilorhipis (Alvarez del Toro and Smith, 1956) and the description of two new species. Mesoamerican Herpetology 3 (1): 8–41 - get paper here
  • Kwet, Axel 2017. Neue Arten: Liste der im Jahr 2016 neu beschriebenen Reptilien. Terraria-Elaphe 2017 (3): 54-70 - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2018. The Lizards, Crocodiles, and Turtles of Honduras. Systematics, Distribution, and Conservation. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Special Publication Series (2): 1- 666 - get paper here
  • Mulcahy DG, Ibáñez R, Jaramillo CA, Crawford AJ, Ray JM, Gotte SW, et al. 2022. DNA barcoding of the National Museum of Natural History reptile tissue holdings raises concerns about the use of natural history collections and the responsibilities of scientists in the molecular age. PLoS ONE 17(3): e0264930 - get paper here
  • Nicholson KE, C. Guyer, and JG Phillips 2017. Biogeographic Origin of Mainland Norops (Squamata: Dactyloidae). Assumptions Inhibiting Progress in Comparative Biology (eds. Crother and Parenti), pp. 169–184
  • NICHOLSON, KIRSTEN E.; BRIAN I. CROTHER, CRAIG GUYER & JAY M. SAVAGE 2018. Translating a clade based classification into one that is valid under the international code of zoological nomenclature: the case of the lizards of the family Dactyloidae (Order Squamata). Zootaxa 4461 (4): 573–586 - get paper here
  • Phillips, JG, J. Deitloff, C. Guyer, S. Huetteman, and KE Nicholson 2015. Biogeography and evolution of a widespread Central American lizard species complex: Norops humilis, (Squamata: Dactyloidae). BMC Evolutionary Biology 15: 143 - get paper here
  • Tarr, S. , Meiri, S., Hicks, J. J. and Algar, A. C. 2018. A biogeographic reversal in sexual size dimorphism along a continental temperature gradient. Ecography, doi:10.1111/ecog.03593 - get paper here
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