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Apostolepis sanctaeritae WERNER, 1924

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymApostolepis sanctae-ritae WERNER 1924: 43
Apostolepis sanctaeritae — DE LEMA & FERNANDES 1997
Apostolepis sanctaeritae — DE LEMA 2002
Apostolepis ammodites FERRAREZZI, ERRITTO BARBO & ESPAÑA ALBUQUERQUE 2005
Apostolepis sanctaeritae — GRAZZIOTIN et al. 2012
Apostolepis ammodites — WALLACH et al. 2014: 50
Apostolepis ammodites — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
Distributionsanctaeritae: C Brazil (Goias)

Type locality: Santa Rita, Brazil (probably Santa Rita do Araguaia, Goiás); restricted to Santa Rita, Ibipetuba, Bahia, Brasil at 11°S, 44,32°W, in the Cerrado ecoregion (Lema and Fernandes, 1997).

ammodites: Brazil (Central Cerrado: Bahia, Distrito Federal, Goias, Minas Gerais); Type locality: Brazil, Tocantins, Palmas, (10°02’ S, 47°20’ W, 230 m elevation).  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NMW 23452
Holotype: IBSP (= IB) 65267 [ammodites] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (ammodites): Rostral nearly roundish but somewhat prominent, its portion visible from above about 1/3 to 1/2 of the interprefrontal suture length; ventrals 221-235 in males to 234-252 in females; subcaudals 32-36 in males and 26-31 in females; light snout blotch reddish in life (fading to yellowish in preservative) and a small to indistinct light supralabial spot; white nuchal collars about 3-6 scales long, black cervical collar 4-7 scales long, followed by an additional postcervical white collar 1-3 scales long; dorsum uniformly red (without stripes); ventral surface uniformly light (unpigmented), except under the head and neck; premaxillae bounded to maxillae; dorsal laminae of nasal contacting frontal and prefrontal; maxillary teeth 4+2, dentary teeth 9-10; pterygoid teeth 3-4.

Diagnosis (n = 11): Apostolepis sanctaeritae can be distinguished from all its congeners by the following com- bination of characters: (1) 15/15/15 smooth dorsals without apical pits; (2) 1+1 postoculars; (3) loreal absent; (4) tempo- rals 0+1, 1+1; (5) supralabials 6, with 2nd and 3rd in contact with orbit; (6) infralabials 7, with first four in contact with chin shield; (7) ventrals 219–253 (219–240 in males, 221– 253 in females); (8) subcaudals 25–36 pairs (32–36 in males, 26–32 in females); (9) in life, dorsal pattern uniform orange or red, head dorsally black, with a white blotch ranging from rostral to frontal scales, supralabial blotch small on 4th supralabial scale, white nuchal collar wide (2–6 scales long), black nuchal collar wide (4–7 scales long), followed by a small or absent white nuchal collar (1–3 scales long, if present), black dorsal tail blotch present (in preservative, white, orange, and red colorations can become indistinct); (10) in life, ventral pattern similar to dorsal, uniform or- ange, with infralabial and gular black markings, sometimes with indistinct black markings below the white and black nuchal collar, terminal caudal spine black (Fig 2) (Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2020). 
CommentBelongs to the assimilis species group of Apostololepis.

Synonymy: Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2020 revalidated Apostolepis sanctaeritae from the synonymy of A. cearensis. They also synonymized ammodites with sanctaeritae.

Distribution: see map in Entiauspe-Neto et al. 2020: 334 (Fig. 2). 
EtymologyNamed after the Greek word for sand (“ammos”). 
References
  • Azevedo, Weverton dos Santos; Arthur Diesel Abegg, Daniella Pereira Fagundes de França 2018. Predator-prey interaction between the snakes Apostolepis ammodites and Psomophis joberti (Snakes: Dipsadidae). Herpetology Notes 11: 263-265 - get paper here
  • Entiauspe-Neto, Omar M.; Claudia Koch, Thaís B. Guedes, & Arthur Tiutenko 2020. Revisiting the taxonomic status of Apostolepis sanctaeritae, a forgotten Neotropical dipsadid snake. SALAMANDRA 56(4): 329–341
  • FERRAREZZI, HEBERT; FAUSTO ERRITTO BARBO & CRISTINA ESPAÑA ALBUQUERQUE 2005. PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF A NEW SPECIES OF APOSTOLEPIS FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO WITH NOTES ON THE ASSIMILIS GROUP (SERPENTES: COLUBRIDAE: XENODONTINAE: ELAPOMORPHINI). Papeis Avulsos de Zoologia 45(16): 215-229 - get paper here
  • FRANÇA, DANIELLA. P. F.; FAUSTO E. BARBO, NELSON J. SILVA-JÚNIOR, HELDER L. R. SILVA, HUSSAM ZAHER 2018. A new species of Apostolepis (Serpentes, Dipsadidae, Elapomorphini) from the Cerrado of Central Brazil. Zootaxa 4521 (4): 438-552 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Guarino R. Colli, Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto, Luiz Trinchão, Daniel Araújo, Tiago de Oliveira Lima, Daniella Pereira Fagundes de França, Renato Gaiga, Pedro Dias 2016. Snakes of Cerrado localities in western Bahia, Brazil. Check List 12 (3): 1896 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Marra-Santos, Fidélis Júnio; Ricardo Araújo Prudente Pires 2020. Report of predator-prey interactions between the snake Apostolepis ammodites Ferrarezzi, Barbo & Albuquerque, 2005 (Serpentes: Colubridae) and Amphisbaena sp. (Amphisbaenia: Amphisbaenidae) in Cerrado Biome, Central Brazil Herpetology Notes 13: 827-830 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo,<br />Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins,<br />Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz0, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisnero 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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