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Asaccus elisae (WERNER, 1895)

IUCN Red List - Asaccus elisae - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaPhyllodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Werner's Leaf-Toed Gecko 
SynonymPhyllodactylus elisae WERNER 1895: 14
Phyllodactylus eugeniae NIKOLSKY 1907
Phyllodactylus elisae — SCHMIDT 1939
Phyllodactylus eliasae — HAAS [sic] 1952
Phyllodactylus ingae EISELT 1973
Phyllodactylus elisae — ARNOLD 1977: 100
Asaccus elisae — DIXON & ANDERSON 1973
Asacus [sic] elisae — BARAN & GRUBER 1982
Asaccus elisae — KLUGE 1993
Asaccus elisae — RÖSLER 1995: 98
Asaccus elisae — PAPENFUSS et al. 2010
Asaccus elisae — NASRABADI et al. 2017 
DistributionS Turkey (Birecik, SE Anatolia, Sanliurfa: HR 33: 223)
E Iraq, SW Iran, NE Syria (Niniveh)

Type locality: ruins of Niniveh (near Mosul)

eugeniae: Iran; Type locality: Dizful and Abu-Garia, affluent to Karun River, Iran [= Dezful, Khuzestan Province, Iran, 32.38 N 48.41 E]  
TypesSyntypes: NMW (4 spec.); BMNH (1946.8.24.39)
Syntypes ZISP (also as ZIL) 10261 [6+], 10262 [6+], 10263 [4], 10270[3], 10349) [Phyllodactylus eugeniae] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Easily distinguishable from other Asaccus species by the strongly keeled dorsal tubercles, the length of the tubercles being equal to the length of the oval ear opening, enlarged tubercles on upper arm, and whorls of keeled and pointed tubercles and scales on the tail. Tail length 55-70 mm, thinner and much longer than snout-vent length. Body slender, about 45-50 mm; dorsum with two series of dark spots on each side of vertebral line. Male with 4 wide black bands on the tail. Lamellae adhesive pads smaller than ear opening, claws extending somewhat the digit scansors.

Diagnosis: Relatively large (57 mm from snout to vent); two pairs of postmentals bordered by 18-20 granules; scales on supraorbital region coarse, as are those of snout (11-16 between postnasal scales and orbit, 14-19 across snout at level of third upper labial);tubercles of dorsum, limbs and tail large, length of individual tubercle more than 64% of ear diameter; 8-14 longitudinal rows of enlarged dorsal tubercles; 10-12 large tubercles across rear of head between ears; 2-12 enlarged tubercles on upper forelimb above elbow; tail tubercles arranged in whorls, each whorl separated from other such tubercles by 2-3 granules; subtibial scales coarse; digital scansors not extending well beyond claws; phalanges in fourth toe reduced to four; cloacal tubercle small; tail tip laterally compressed; subcaudal series of expanded scales not reaching vent area anteriorly; tail color not sexually dimorphic, with a series of dark transverse bars that extend ventrally (Dixon and Anderson, 1973; Arnold and Gardner, 1994; Anderson, 1999; Rastegar-Pouyani et al., 2007) [from Parsa et al. 2009]

Diagnosis (genus): Digits with paired terminal scansors that lack lamellae, reduction of phalangeal formula of manus to, no transverse processes on autotomic caudal vertebrae except sometimes the first (ARNOLD 1977), no femoral pores, cloacal sacs or bones, only one egg laid at a time and left oviduct absent. The left oviduct is present in Phyllodactylus and in the apparently related Paroedura [ARNOLD & GARDNER 1994]. 
CommentPhylogenetics (genus): Tamar et al. 2018, Fattahi et al. 2020 found many unnamed clades within (Iranian) Asaccus, although they did not name any of them.

Synonymy: mostly after ARNOLD & GARDNER 1994. Not listed by Engelmann et al. (1993).

Type species: Phyllodactylus elisae WERNER 1895 is the type species of the genus Asaccus DIXON & ANDERSON 1973.

Distribution: See map in SMID et al. 2014 for distribution in Iran. 
  • Afrasiab, Saman R. and Sarbaz I. Mohamad 2009. A study on cave-dwelling geckos in Iraq, with the description of a new species from Saffine mountain (Reptilia: Gekkonidae). Zoology in the Middle East 47:49-56 - get paper here
  • ANANJEVA, NATALIA B.; KONSTANTIN D. MILTO, ANDREI V. BARABANOV, EVGENY A. GOLYNSKY 2020. An annotated type catalogue of amphibians and reptiles collected by Nikolay A. Zarudny in Iran and Middle Asia. Zootaxa 4722 (2): 101–128 - get paper here
  • Anderson, S.C. 1963. Amphibians and Reptiles from Iran. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 31(16): 417-498 - get paper here
  • Anderson, Steven C 1999. The lizards of Iran. Contributions to Herpetology Volume 15, Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Saint Louis, Missouri: i-vii, 1-442 [review in Copeia 2000 (4): 1144] - get paper here
  • Arnold E N; Gardner A S 1994. A review of the middle eastern leaf-toed geckoes (Gekkonidae: Asaccus) with descriptions of two new species from Oman. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 14: 424-441 - get paper here
  • Arnold, E. N. 1977. Little-known geckoes (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Arabia with descriptions of two new species from the Sultanate of Oman. The Scientific Results of the Oman Flora and Fauna Survey, 1975. Journal of Oman Studies, Special Report, (1):81—110 [1975]
  • Baran, Ibrahim; Yusuf Kumlutas; Cetin Ilgaz; Oguz Turkozan, and Aziz Avci 2003. ON Asaccus elisae (F. WERNER, 1895) (SAURIA: GEKKONIDAE) SPECIMENS COLLECTED FROM THE VICINITY OF HARRAN, SANLIURFA IN SOUTHEAST TURKEY. Russ. J. Herpetol. 10 (1): - get paper here
  • Dixon, J.R. & Anderson,S.C. 1973. A new genus and species of gecko (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from Iran and Iraq. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 72: 155-160 [1975] - get paper here
  • Eiselt, J. 1973. Ein neuer Blattfinger-Gecko (Phyllodactylus, Sauria, Rept.) aus dem Iran und Bemerkungen zu Phyllodactylus elisae. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, 77:173—179 - get paper here
  • Esterbauer, H. 1992. Asaccus elisae (Werner 1895) in Syrien. Sauria 14 (3): 31-34 - get paper here
  • Fathnia, B.; N. Rastegar Pouyani; M. Sampour; A.M. Bahrami; G. Jaafari 2009. The lizard fauna of Ilam province, Southwestern Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 5 (2) - get paper here
  • Fattahi, Akbar; Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Rasoul Karamiani, Seyyed Saeed Hosseinian Yousefkhani & Behzad Fathinia 2020. Molecular phylogeny and taxonomic evaluation of the genus Asaccus Dixon and Anderson, 1973 (Reptilia: Phyllodactylidae) in Iran. The Herpetological Journal 30: 207-214 - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
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  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany ( 574 pp.
  • Karamiani, Rasoul, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Razieh Fattahi and Behzad Fathinia. 2013. Sexual dimorphism in leaf-toed gecko Asaccus elisae (Werner, 1895) (Sauria: Gekkonidae) from western Iran. Hamadryad 36 (2): 157-161 - get paper here
  • LEPTIEN, R., T. KOWALSKI & H.J. ZILGER 1994. Der "Große Asaccus" aus den Omanbergen, Asaccus elisae (WERNER, 1895) s. lat. Sauria 16 (1): 21-25 - get paper here
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  • NASRABADI, REZA; NASRULLAH RASTEGAR-POUYANI, ESKANDAR RASTEGAR-POUYANI, AHMAD GHARZI 2017. A revised key to the lizards of Iran (Reptilia: Squamata: Lacertilia). Zootaxa 4227 (3): 431–443 - get paper here
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  • PAPENFUSS, THEODORE J.; TODD R. JACKMAN, AARON M. BAUER, BRYAN L. STUART, MICHAEL D. ROBINSON, and JAMES F. PARHAM 2010. Phylogenetic Relationships Among Species of Southwest Asian Leaf-toed Geckos (Asaccus). Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 61 (13): 587-596 - get paper here
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  • Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah 2006. Systematics of the genus Asaccus (Sauria: Gekkonidae) on the Zagros Mountains, Iran. Herpetologica Bonnensis II: 117-119 - get paper here
  • RASTEGAR-POUYANI, NASRULLAH; HAJI GHOLI KAMI, MEHDI RAJABZADEH, SOHEILA SHAFIEI AND STEVEN CLEMENT ANDERSON 2008. Annotated Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles of Iran. Iranian Journal of Animal Biosystematics 4 (1): 7-30
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