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Aspidoscelis inornatus (BAIRD, 1859)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Teiinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesAspidoscelis inornatus arizonae (VAN DENBURGH 1896)
Aspidoscelis inornatus chihuahuae (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Aspidoscelis inornatus cienegae (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Aspidoscelis inornatus gypsi (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Aspidoscelis inornatus heptagrammus (AXTELL 1961)
Aspidoscelis inornatus juniperus (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Aspidoscelis inornatus llanuras (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Aspidoscelis inornatus inornatus (BAIRD 1859)
Aspidoscelis inornatus octolineatus (BAIRD 1859)
Aspidoscelis inornatus paululus (WILLIAMS 1968) 
Common NamesE: Little Striped Whiptail
arizonae: Arizona Striped Whiptail
gypsi: Little White Whiptail
heptagrammus: Trans-Pecos Striped Whiptail
juniperus: Woodland Striped Whiptail
llanuras: Plains Striped Whiptail
neavesi: Neaves' Whiptail Lizard
S: Huico Liso 
SynonymCnemidophorus inornatus BAIRD 1859: 255
Cnemidophorus inornatus — GÜNTHER 1885: 29
Cnemidophorus inornatus — GADOW 1906: 373
Cnemidophorus perplexus VAN DENBURGH 1922: 495 (non BAIRD & GIRARD)
Cnemidophorus gularis velox SPRINGER 1928: 102
Cnemidophorus inornatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 184
Cnemidophorus inornatus — STEBBINS 1985: 154
Cnemidophorus inornatus inornatus — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus inornatus — LINER 1994
Aspidoscelis inornata — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis inornata — COLE et al. 2010
Aspidoscelis inornatus — PYRON & BURBRINK 2013

Aspidoscelis inornatus arizonae (VAN DENBURGH 1896)
Cnemidophorus arizonae VAN DENBURGH 1896: 344
Cnemidophorus inornatus — SMITH & TAYLOR 1950: 184
Cnemidophorus inornatus arizonae — WRIGHT & LOWE 1965
Cnemidophorus inornatus arizonae — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus inornatus arizonae — WRIGHT & LOWE 1993
Cnemidophorus arizonae — CROTHER 2000
Aspidoscelis inornata arizonae — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis arizonae — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Aspidoscelis inornata arizonae — COLE et al. 2010
Aspidoscelis arizonae — JONES & LOVICH 2009
Aspidoscelis inornata arizonae — CROTHER et al. 2017
Aspidoscelis arizonae — BARLEY et al. 2021

Aspidoscelis inornatus chihuahuae (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Cnemidophorus inornatus chihuahuae WRIGHT & LOWE 1993: 137
Aspidoscelis inornata chihuahuae — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis inornata chihuahuae — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Aspidoscelis arizonae chihuahuae — BARLEY et al. 2021

Aspidoscelis inornatus cienegae (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Cnemidophorus inornatus cienegae WRIGHT & LOWE 1993: 139
Aspidoscelis inornata cienegae — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis inornata cienegae — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Aspidoscelis inornata cienegae — GARCÍA-VÁZQUEZ et al. 2019
Aspidoscelis arizonae cienegae — BARLEY et al. 2021

Aspidoscelis inornatus gypsi (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Cnemidophorus inornatus gypsi WRIGHT & LOWE 1993: 140
Cnemidophorus gypsi — CROTHER 2000
Aspidoscelis inornata gypsi — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis gypsi — COLLINS & TAGGART 2009
Aspidoscelis inornata gypsi — CROTHER et al. 2012
Aspidoscelis gypsi — JONES & LOVICH 2009
Aspidoscelis arizonae gypsi — BARLEY et al. 2021

Aspidoscelis inornatus heptagrammus (AXTELL 1961)
Cnemidophorus inornatus heptagrammus AXTELL 1961: 151
Cnemidophorus inornatus heptagrammus — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus inornatus heptagrammus — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 123
Cnemidophorus inornatus heptagrammus — CROTHER 2000
Cnemidophorus inornatus heptogrammus — DIXON 2000
Aspidoscelis inornata heptagramma — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis inornata heptagramma — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Cnemidophorus inornatus heptagrammus — AKERET 2010
Aspidoscelis inornata heptagramma — CROTHER et al. 2012
Aspidoscelis arizonae heptagrammus — BARLEY et al. 2021

Aspidoscelis inornatus juniperus (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Cnemidophorus inornatus juniperus WRIGHT & LOWE 1993: 146
Aspidoscelis inornata juniperus — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis inornata junipera — COLLINS & TAGGART 2012
Aspidoscelis inornata junipera — CROTHER et al. 2012
Aspidoscelis arizonae juniperus — BARLEY et al. 2021

Aspidoscelis inornatus llanuras (WRIGHT & LOWE 1993)
Cnemidophorus inornatus llanuras WRIGHT & LOWE 1993: 148
Aspidoscelis inornata llanuras — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis inornata llanuras — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Aspidoscelis inornata llanuras — CROTHER et al. 2012
Aspidoscelis arizonae llanuras — BARLEY et al. 2021

Aspidoscelis inornatus inornatus (BAIRD 1859)
Cnemidophorus inornatus BAIRD 1858
Cnemidophorus inornatus inornatus — WRIGHT & LOWE 1993: 143
Aspidoscelis inornata inornata — REEDER et al. 2002

Aspidoscelis inornatus octolineatus (BAIRD 1859)
Cnemidophorus octolineatus BAIRD 1859: 255
Cnemidophorus octolineatus — GADOW 1906: 373
Cnemidophorus octolineatus — SMITH 1939
Cnemidophorus gularis octolineatus — JAMESON & FLURY 1949
Aspidoscelis inornata octolineata — REEDER et al. 2002

Aspidoscelis inornatus paululus (WILLIAMS 1968)
Cnemidophorus inornatus paululus WILLIAMS 1968: 21
Cnemidophorus inornatus paululus — MASLIN & SECOY 1986
Cnemidophorus inornatus paululus WRIGHT & LOWE 1993: 151
Aspidoscelis inornata paulula — REEDER et al. 2002
Aspidoscelis inornata paulula — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008 
DistributionUSA (Arizona, New Mexico, SW Texas),
Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Tamaulipas, NE Durango, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosi, W Nuevo Leon)

Type locality: Pesquiría Grande (= García), Nuevo León (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)

arizonae: USA (SE Arizona); Type locality: Fairbank, Cochise County, Arizona (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950)

chihuahuae: Mexico (Chihuahua); Type locality: 8.1 miles east of Ciudad Chihuahua,1440 meters elevevation, Chihuahua, Mexico.

cienegae: Mexico (Coahuila); Type locality: 13.9 km SW of Cuatro Cienegas de Carranza, point of San Marcos Mtn., Coahuila, Mexico.

gypsi: USA (New Mexico)

heptagrammus: USA (W Texas, New Mexico); Mexico (Coahuila); Type locality: “30° 11’ 30" N, 103° 09' W, 5 mi ESE Marathon, Brewster County, Texas. Elevation 4,150 feet."

juniperus: USA (New Mexico); Type locality: San Pedro Creek, 3 miles north and 2 miles east of San Antonio, 4550 ft, Bernalillo County, New Mexico.

llanuras: USA (New Mexico); Type locality: Carthage, 4990 ft, Socorro County, New Mexico.

octolineatus: Mexico (Nuevo León); Type locality: Mexico, Nuevo León, Villa de Garcia (= Pesquena Grande).

paululus: Mexico (Durango); Type locality: Mexico: 10.2 mi NE Chocolate, Durango.  
ReproductionOviparous. Lutes et al. (2011) report the generation of four self-sustaining clonal lineages of a tetraploid species resulting from fertilization of triploid oocytes from a parthenogenetic Aspidoscelis exsanguis with haploid sperm from Aspidoscelis inornata.<br /><br />Hybridization: Aspidoscelis inornata arizonae and A. tigris marmorata hybridized in captivity (COLE et al. 2010). A cross between Aspidoscelis exsanguis (triploid parthenogen) × Aspidoscelis inornata (diploid bisexual or gonochoristic species) resulted in a “new” species, A. neavesi. Similarly, A. priscillae is a tetraploid all-female species originated in the laboratory from hybridization between Aspidoscelis uniparens (triploid parthenogen) and Aspidoscelis inornatus (diploid bisexual species).<br /><br />Aspidoscelis neavesi COLE et al 2014 is the first known tetraploid amniote that reproduces through parthenogenetic cloning by individual females. Aspidoscelis neavesi originated through hybridization between Aspidoscelis exsanguis (triploid parthenogen) × Aspidoscelis inornata (diploid bisexual or gonochoristic species) in the laboratory. Cole et al. 2014 speculate that field-caught tetraploids may be found in the future. Similarly, Aspidoscelis priscillae COLE et al. 2017 is a tetraploid all-female species originated in the laboratory from hybridization between Aspidoscelis uniparens (triploid parthenogen) and Aspidoscelis inornatus (diploid bisexual species). Given that these “species” have not been found in nature, we do not list them as regular species for the time being. 
TypesHolotype: USNM 3032 (fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950); Burger (1950) designated a lectotype, corrected by WRIGHT & LOWE 1993 to USNM 3032A.
Holotype: CAS 2631 (originally CAS-SUR 2631 = Stanford Univ. 2631, fide SMITH & TAYLOR 1950) [arizonae]
Holotype: UAZ (Univ Arizona Zoology) 5495 [chihuahuae]
Holotype: CM 43196 [cienegae]
Holotype: UAZ (University of Arizona, Departmentof Zoology) No. 16187 [gypsi]
Holotype: private collection, RWA 1758, adult male [heptagrammus]
Holotype: MSB (Museum of Southwestern Biology, University of New Mexico) 5026 [juniperus]
Holotype: MSB (Museum of Southwestern Biology, University of New Mexico) 10357 [llanuras]
Holotype: USNM 3009, adult male [octolineata]
Holotype: INHS (= UIMNH) 50988, K. L. Williams and P. S. Charpliwy; July 16, 1958 [paululus]
Holotype: USNM 3060 [perplexus]
Holotype. MCZ R-194296; see A. uniparens for more type information [priscillae]
Holotype. MCZ R-192219; see A. exsanguinis for more type information [neavesi] 
DiagnosisDiagnostic Characters (inornatus). A small species, maximum known snout to vent length 72 mm. Number of dorsal granules (scales around midbody = SAB) varies from 52 to 79; SPV (= scales between paravertebral light stripes, where stripes are present) from 3 to 21; SPV/SAB X 100 from 5.2 to 31.3; FP from 25 to 42. Interlabial scale series well developed. Mesoptychial and postantebrachial scales slightly enlarged but granular. Dorsal color pattern without spots. Light stripes presenton dorsal and lateralsurfaces; a population of unstriped(uniform grey colored) individuals occurs in the type locality are aonly. Number of stripes 6 to12,with regional populations consisting of individuals largely having 6, 6 to 7, 7, 7 to 8, or 8 (or more) stripes. No significant ontogenetic change in pattern occurs from hatchlings to adults. Stripe colors among populations vary from white through bluish white, grey and cream, to yellow. Dorsal ground colors are black, grey-black, grey, grey-brown, brown, reddish-brown,yellowish-tan, and white or whitish. All known populations are bisexual, with marked sexual dimorphismin the intensity and distributiono f blue pigmenton the ventral surfaces of adults. Males have more surface area with blue pigment that is also generally more intense than in females.

Diagnosis (chihuahuae). A subspecies of C. inornatus, generally with some development of a middorsal stripe though rarely complete. Dorsal ground color light (yellowish-tan to reddish-brown). Venter sparingly suffused with light blue. SAB, high; SPV, intermediate; SPV/SAB X 100, intermediate; FP, intermediate to high, tendingto be highest in the south (Table 1 in Wright & Lowe 1993).

Diagnosis (cienegae). An essentially flatland race apparently restricted to the Cuatro Cienegas Basin with six complete stripes and a short "tick" in the occiput and anterior neck region to represent the seventh (middorsal) in eighty per cent of specimens, with ninety-fiveper cent lacking complete development of the seventh stripe. Dorsal ground color dark grey to black, stripes white to light yellow, ventral surfaces only lightly suffused with blue. SAB and SPV values are lowest for species. Ratio values lowest for species (mean of 9.3 as in pai, below), striping values low, FP values intermediate (Table 1 in Wright & Lowe 1993).

Diagnosis (gypsi). Ground colors pastel blue and white or whitish (white, grey-white, to bluish white), with faintly visible dorsal light lines (stripes). Number of stripes, where discernible, seven to nearly eight. Venter immaculatewhitish to very light blue. SAB low; SPV intermediate; Ratio high; FP low; stripe value
high (Table 1).

Diagnosis. A small subspecies generally lacking the middorsal stripe; dorsal coloration light (tan to greyish), venter bluish (generally light) with females possessing only traces. SAB, counts low, means vary from 59.1 to 63, generally falling between 60 and 62; SPV,counts low,means vary from 6.2 to 8.4 with
most sample means between 7.0 and 7.5; FP, generally low, means approximating 31 to 32 (Table 1, Wright & Lowe 1993). 
CommentSynonymy: Milstead 1957 suggested to synonymize Cnemidophorus perplexus with C. inornatus, based on the continuous variation of characters between the two forms. Maslin & secoy 1986 list octolineatus as a synonym of C. inornatus inornatus. However, Reeder et al. 2002 list it as valid subspecies.

Subspecies: Wright & Lowe (1993) described five new U. S. races of this lizard, arizonae, gypsi, and pai (all allopatric), and juniperus and llanuras (both parapatric). Walker et al. (1996) proposed synonymizing the races juniperus and llanuras. Collins (1997), presented the conclusions of Wright & Lowe (1993) and Walker et al. (1997) to lizard systematist group, composed of Robert Bezy, Charles J. Cole, Darrel Arnold Kluge, Jimmy McGuire, Richard Montanucci, Robert Powell, and John Wiens, and the majority of those individuals responding recommended juniperus and llanuras not be recognized, and that arizonae, gypsi, and pai all be considered distinct species. Collins (1997) followed those recommendations. de Queiroz et al. in Crother (2017) considered the subspecies A. i. junipera and A. i. llanura to be junior synonyms of A. i. heptagramma.

[from: http://eagle.cc.ukans.edu/~cnaar/lacertilia.html]. However, Reeder et al. (2002) considered arizonae, gypsi, juniperus and llanurus as subspecies of C. inornata. Sullivan et al. (2013) found that A. arizonae as indistinguishable from A. i. llanuras and concluded that either A. arizonae is a cryptic species or a peripheral isolate unworthy of species status. Rosenblum & Burkett (in Lovich & Jones 2009) state that gypsi and inornata are not distinguishable based on available genetic data. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is derived from the Latin words in- , meaning "without or not" and ornatus, meaning "ornate or adorned," in reference to the original description of an unstriped population.

A. priscillae, a noun in the genitive singular case, honors Priscilla W. Neaves, who participated equally with WBN in the capture of all whiptail lizards in the 1960s that contributed early insights into the molecular genetics, origins, and speciation of parthenogens through hybridization (Neaves and Gerald, 1968, 1969; Neaves, 1969, 1971). During the first decade of the 2000s, she also participated in capturing A. inornatus and A. uniparens in New Mexico for the laboratory hybridization project that produced most of the tetraploid lineages described in Cole et al. 2017.

A. neavesi, a noun in the genitive singular case, honors Dr. William B. Neaves, who was awarded a Ph.D. at Harvard University. Dr. Neaves’ graduate studies on unisexual whiptail lizards (Neaves and Gerald, 1968, 1969; Neaves, 1969, 1971) provided important early insights into the molecular genetics, origins, and speciation of parthenogens through hybridization, as well as the origin of a tetraploid hybrid lizard of A. exsanguis X A. inornata that he discovered in the field in Alamogordo, Otero County, New Mexico, which was the inspiration for the present laboratory hybridization project. 
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