You are here » home advanced search Atractus emmeli

Atractus emmeli (BOETTGER, 1888)

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Atractus emmeli?

Add your own observation of
Atractus emmeli »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Emmel's Ground Snake
E: Boettger's Ground Snake [boettgeri] 
SynonymGeophis emmeli BOETTGER 1888: 192
Atractus emmeli — BOULENGER 1894: 311
Atractus boettgeri BOULENGER 1896: 645
Atractus balzani BOULENGER 1898: 129
Atractus taeniatus GRIFFIN 1916: 173
Atractus emmeli — SCHMIDT & WALKER 1943
Atractus balzani — PETERS et al. 1970: 27
Atractus taeniatus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 35
Atractus boettgeri — MCCOY 1971 (part.)
Atractus boettgeri — DA CUNHA & DO NASCIMENTO 1983: 122
Atractus paravertebralis HENLE & EHRL 1991
Atractus taeniatus — CEI 1993
Atractus occipitoalbus — FUGLER & CABOT 1995:45
Atractus taeniatus — PASSOS et al. 2005
Atractus emmeli — PASSOS & FERNANDES 2008
Atractus paravertebralis — BÖHME 2010
Atractus occipitoalbus — QUINTERO-MUÑOZ 2013: 76
Atractus balzani — WALLACH et al. 2014: 69
Atractus emmeli — WALLACH et al. 2014: 72
Atractus paravertebralis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 79
Atractus boettgeri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 69
Atractus taeniatus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 81
Atractus emmeli — PASSOS et al. 2019: 10
Atractus emmeli — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBolivia (Beni, Santa Cru), Peru (Cusco, Junin, Loreto, Ucayali)

Type locality: Río Mapiri, Dep. de La Paz, Bolivia

balzani: NW Bolivia (La Paz); Type locality: Missiones Mosetenes, NW Bolivia [15°47’S, 66°58’W, ca. 517 m elevation]

boettgeri: Bolivia (Cochabamba); Type locality: Yungas, Sierra de las Yungas, Dep. de Cochabamba, Bolivia

paravertebralis: S Peru; Type locality: “Peru; Departamento Madre de Dios; Baja Tambopata; in Sekundärwald” [= Río Tambopata, Madre de Dios Department, SE Peru, ca. 12°53’S, 69°25’W, elevation 225 m].

taeniatus: Bolivia (Santa Cruz), Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná [HR 27: 216], Mato Grosso), Argentina (Entre Rios, Misiones, Corrientes ?); Type locality: Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia.  
TypesLectotype: SMF 19364 (designated by Mertens 1967)
Holotype: MSNG 28873, a 400 mm specimen (L. Balzan, 1892) [balzani]
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.6.29 [boettgeri]
Holotype: ZFMK 39705, no paratype [paravertebralis]
Holotype: CM 117, a 218 mm male (J. Steinbach) [taeniatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (emmeli). Atractus emmeli can be distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows usually 15/15/15, lacking apical pits; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal moderately long; (4) temporal formula 1þ2; (5) supralabials six to seven, third and fourth contacting orbit; (6) infralabials usually seven, first four scales in contact with chin shields; (7) maxillary teeth six to eight with posterior-most two teeth reduced in size; (8) gular scales in four series; (9) usually four preventrals; (10) ventrals in females 154–187, in males 147–169; (11) subcaudals in females 14–25, in males 20–31; (12) after preservation, dorsum of body light to dark brown or uniformly black, frequently with a broad white to pale brown parietal band most conspicuous in immature specimens, and occasionally (in the cases of lighter ground color) with irregular black blotches on paravertebral region; (13) after preservation, ventral surface of body and tail cream, usually heavily covered with variable black dots or spots, longitudinally along the midline of each ventral, laterally restricted to the anterior margins of each scale, irregularly distributed on venter or almost entirely darkening the belly and tail; (14) body size moderate, females reaching 382 mm, males reaching 304 mm SVL; (15) tail short in females (5.7– 9.6% SVL), moderately long in males (9.2–14.7% SVL); (16) hemipenis moderately bilobed, semicapitated, and semicalyculated [from Passos et al. 2019: 11]. 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after Passos et al. 2019. Passos et al. 2018 synonymized A. balzani with A. emmeli. Passos et al. 2019 synonymized A. boettgeri, A. paravertebralis, and A. taeniatus with A. emmeli based on quantitative (meristics and morphometrics) and qualitative (pholidosis, color pattern, and hemipenis) analyses of morphological characters, in combination with ecological niche modeling and niche overlapping.

Abundance: Boulenger (1898) described A. balzani based on a single specimen and no other specimens have been collected since then (Passos et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after Ferdinand Emmel sent two specimens of this snake to Naturmuseum Senckenberg, Frankfurt.

A. boettgeri was named after Oskar Boettger (1844-1910), herpetologist at the Senckenberg Museum in Frankfurt am Main.

A. balzani was named after Dr. Luigi Balzan (1865-1893), an Italian naturalist and collector of the holotype. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 12 (3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1888. Beitrag zur Reptilfauna des oberen Beni in Bolivia. Ber. senckenb. naturf. Ges. Frankfurt am Main, 1888: 191-199 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2010. A list of the herpetological type specimens in the Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn. Bonn zoological Bulletin 59: 79-108 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1894. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume II., Containing the Conclusion of the Colubridæ Aglyphæ. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.), London, xi, 382 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1898. A list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the late Prof. L. Balzan in Boliva. Ann. Mus. Civ. Storia Nat. Genova (2) 19: 128-133 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, P.; Villalba, R. & Yanosky, A.A. 2007. A NEW SPECIES OF ATRACTUS (SERPENTES:COLUBRIDAE: DIPSADINAE) FROM THE ATLANTIC FOREST OF ALTO PARANÁ, PARAGUAY. South American J. Herp. 2 (2): 83-88 - get paper here
  • Cunha, O R da; do Nascimento F P 1983. Ofidios da Amazonia. 20 - As especies de Atractus Wagler, 1828, na Amazonia oriental & Maranhao (Ophidia, Colubridae). Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi NOVA SERIE ZOOLOGIA (No. 123): 1-38 - get paper here
  • Griffin, L.F. 1916. A catalog of the Ophidia from South America at present (June 1916) contained in the Carnegie Museum with descriptions of some new species. Mem. Carnegie Mus. 7 (3) [1915]: 163-228 - get paper here
  • Henle K. and EHRL A. 1991. Zur Reptilienfauna Perus nebst Beschreibung eines neuen Anolis (Iguanidae) und zweier neuer Schlangen (Colubridae). Bonner Zoologische Beiträge 42 (2): 143 - 180. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Passos, P., R. Fernandes and N. Zanella 2005. A new species of Atractus (Serpentes: Colubridae) from Southern Brazil. Herpetologica 61 (2): 209-218 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Altagratia Chiesse, Omar Torres-Carvajal, and Jay M. Savage 2009. TESTING SPECIES BOUNDARIES WITHIN THE ATRACTUS OCCIPITOALBUS COMPLEX (SERPENTES: DIPSADIDAE). Herpetologica 65 (4): 384-403 - get paper here
  • Passos, Paulo; Josué A.R. Azevedo, Cristiano C. Nogueira, Ronaldo Fernandes, and Ricardo J. Sawaya 2019. An Integrated Approach to Delimit Species in the Puzzling Atractus emmeli Complex (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Herpetological Monographs 33 (1): 1-25 - get paper here
  • PASSOS, PAULO; VINÍCIUS SUDRÉ, GIULIANO DORIA & PATRICK D. CAMPBELL 2018. The taxonomic status of the “forgotten” Bolivian snakes, Atractus balzani Boulenger 1898 and Atractus maculatus (sensu Boulenger 1896) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae). Zootaxa 4438 (1): 176–182 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Rey, Laura Raquel;Lions, Maria Luisa 1997. Geographic Distribution. Atractus taeniatus. Herpetological Review 28 (1): 51 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. & Walker, Warren F. 1943. Peruvian snakes from the University of Arequipa. Zoological Series of Field Museum of Zoology 24 (26): 279-296 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Williams,J.D. & Gudynas,E. 1991. Revalidation and redescription of Atractus taeniatus GRIFFIN 1916 (Serpentes,Colubridae). Contribuiciones en Biologia 15: 1-8
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator