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Atractus nawa MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, PRUDENTE, VENEGAS & TORRES-CARVAJAL, 2021

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAtractus nawa MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, PRUDENTE, VENEGAS & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2021: 726
Atractus major – AVILA-PIRES et al. 2009
Atractus schach – PASSOS & FERNANDES 2008 (partim)
Atractus schach – PRUDENTE & PASSOS 2008 (partim) 
DistributionBrazil (Acre)

Type locality: Brazil, Acre, Porto Walter (8.258°S, 72.776°W), 212 m elevation.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MPEG 20376 (field number LJV 6299), adult female from , col- lected by L.J. Vitt, T.C.S. Avila-Pires, J.P. Caldwell, and V. Oliveira on 28 February 1996 (Figure 7 in Melo-Sampaio e al. 2021).
Paratype: UFACF 3771, adult female from Brazil, Acre, Cruzeiro do Sul, km 80 of the BR-364 highway on the route to Tarauacá (7.750°S, 72.366°W), 200 m asl, collected by R.A. Machado on February 2010. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus nawa can be distinguished from all congeners by unique combination of the following characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows 17/17/17; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal moderately long; (4) temporal formula 1+2; (5) supralabials seven, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) infralabials seven, first four contacting chinshields; (7) maxillary teeth seven; (8) gular scale rows four; (9) preventrals four; (10) ventrals 166–169 in females, unknown in males; (11) subcaudals 16–20 in females, unknown in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum Brussels brown [color 33] with Raw umber spots; (13) in preservative, venter predominantly pale cinnamon with warm sepia dots near cloaca and mid-ventral portion of tail; (14) body size moderately long in females (maximum 405 mm SVL); and (15) tail short in females (6.2–7.7% of SVL); (16) hemipenis unknown (Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021).

Comparisons: We compared the new species with geographically closer and sympatric congeners occurring along the state of Acre, Brazil. Atractus nawa differs from A. albuquerquei, A. boimirim, A. emmeli, and A. elaps by having 17/17/17 dorsal scale rows (vs. 15/15/15). Regarding the species with 17 dorsal scales rows, A. nawa differs from A. major in having first four infralabials in contact with chinshields, dorsal Brussels brown with Raw umber spots, pale cinnamon with warm sepia dots near cloaca, and ≤20 subcaudals in females (vs. first three infralabials in contact with chinshields, dorsum gray or reddish, followed by square sepia dots from midbody to posterior region of belly and >27 subcaudals in females); from A. snethlageae in having tail <8% of SVL in females, ≤20 subcaudals in females, ≥166 ventrals in females, and pale orange snout (vs. tail >8% of SVL in females, >26 subcaudals in females, ≤163 ventrals, and olive brown snout); from A. latifrons in having loreal scales twice as long as high and rostral scale wider than high (vs. loreal as long as high and rostral higher than long). We refer to Table 1 for additional comparisons between Atractus nawa and other Amazonian congeners (Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021).

Color in life (n = 2): Dorsum of head black with snout and parietals orange, followed by black parietal band and black spots bordered by yellowish pigment; belly well-distinct reddish-pink, limited by narrow black paraventral lines. Iris brown with rounded black pupil (Figure 9). The paratype agrees well with the holotype in dorsal color pattern. Some differences are found in the extension of Raw umber bands being inconspicuous light-bordered (Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021).

Quantitative variation (n = 2): Largest female 390 mm SVL, 30 mm TL; ventrals 166–169 (mean = 167.5; n = 2; SD = 2.1) in females; subcaudals 18–20 (mean = 19; n = 2; SD = 1.4) in females; adult mid-body diameter 9.2–10.1 mm in females; maxillary teeth six (n = 2 sides) or seven (n = 2 sides) (Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021). 
Comment 
EtymologyEtymology: The specific epithet “nawa” corresponds to the self-designation or to an indicator of otherness (other people) of many Pano-speaking societies living along Juruá River basin (Montagner, 2007). The word also refers to the distinction of the new species from its congeners by indigenous people on the region. 
References
  • Melo‐Sampaio, PR, Passos, P, Prudente, ALC, Venegas, PJ, Torres‐Carvajal, O. 2021. Systematic review of the polychromatic ground snakes Atractus snethlageae complex reveals four new species from threatened environments. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 2021; 59: 718– 747 - get paper here
  • Passos, P. & Fernandes, R. 2008. A new species of the colubrid snake genus Atractus (Reptilia: Serpentes) from the central Amazon of Brazil. Zootaxa 1849: 59–66 - get paper here
  • Prudente, Ana L.C and Paulo Passos 2008. New Species of Atractus Wagler, 1828 (Serpentes: Dipsadinae) from Guyana Plateau in Northern Brazil. Journal of Herpetology 42 (4): 723 - get paper here
 
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