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Atractus pachacamac MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, PRUDENTE, VENEGAS & TORRES-CARVAJAL, 2021

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymAtractus pachacamac MELO-SAMPAIO, PASSOS, PRUDENTE, VENEGAS & TORRES-CARVAJAL 2021
Atractus touzeti — ARTEAGA et al. 2017 
DistributionColombia, Ecuador, Peru (Amazon foothills between 350–1500 m elevation)

Type locality: Ecuador, Napo, Sumaco Wildlife Sanctuary, Sendero Benavides (0.676°S, 77.600°W), 1496 m elevation.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: QCAZ 12630, adult male, collected by F. Ayala on 4 April 2014.
Paratopotypes (n = 4): QCAZ, DHMECN.
Paratypes (n = 24): EPN, QCAZ, FHGO, DHMECN, CORBIDI 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Atractus pachacamac can be distinguished from all congeners by unique combination of the following characters: (1) smooth dorsal scale rows 17/17/17; (2) postoculars two; (3) loreal moderately long; (4) temporal formula 1+2; (5) supralabials seven, third and fourth contacting eye; (6) infralabials usually eight, first four contacting chin-shields; (7) maxillary teeth seven; (8) gular scale rows three; (9) usually two preventrals; (10) ventrals 162–175 in females, 158–167 in males; (11) subcaudals 31–33 in females, 39–45 in males; (12) in preservative, dorsum sepia with saval brown bands; (13) in preservative, venter chamois anteriorly and sepia with chamois spots posteriorly; (14) long body in females (maximum 620 mm SVL) and moderately long in males (maximum 460 mm SVL); (15) tail size moderately long in females (12.1–13.6% of SVL) and long in males (17.5%–19.5% of SVL); and (16) hemipenes moderately bilobed (≤half the length of capitulum), semicapitate, and semicalyculate.

Comparisons: Atractus pachacamac differs from A. snethlageae in having ≥158 ventrals, ≥39 subcaudals, and >320 mm SVL in males (vs. ≤155 ventrals, ≤34 subcaudals and <300 mm SVL in males); from A. nawa in having >30 subcaudals, tail >12.0% SVL, and >600 mm SVL in females, (vs. ≤20 subcaudals, tail ≤8.0% of SVL, and ≤405 mm SVL in females); from A. dapsilis in having >600 mm SVL, tail >12.0% of SVL in females, ≥17.5% of SVL in males, and 31–33 subcaudals in females, 39–45 in males (vs. <600 mm SVL, and <12.0% of SVL in females, ≤17.6% of SVL in males, and 21–26 subcaudals in females, 30–37 in males); from A. ukupacha in having >600 mm SVL in females and moderately bilobed hemipenes (vs. spotted preventrals, <500 mm SVL in females, and strongly bilobed hemipenes); from A. schach and A. trefauti in having >600 mm SVL, tail >12.0% of SVL in females, >17% of SVL in males, 162– 175 ventrals in females, 158–167 in males, and 31–33 subcaudals in females, 39–45 in males (vs. <230 mm SVL, tail <12.0% of SVL in A. schach and A. trefauti; 148–150 ventrals in females, 142–151 in males, 19–21 subcaudals in females, 25–31 in males of A. schach; and 153–158 ventrals in females, 139–149 in males, 21–24 sub-caudals in females, 24–29 in males of A. trefauti); from A. touzeti in having <700 mm SVL in females, seven supralabials, third and fourth supralabial contacting eye, seven maxillary teeth, postocular equal in size, and upper and lower posterior temporals equal in size (vs. >700 mm SVL in females, eight supralabials, fourth and fifth supralabial contacting eye, eight maxillary, very small lower postocular, and very large upper posterior temporal). We refer to Table 1 for additional comparisons between Atractus pachacamac and other Amazonian congeners (Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021).

Color in life of holotype: Rostral, symphisial, and first pair of infralabials almost completely dark brownish olive [color 127]; snout with tiny chrome orange [color 74] dots; iris rounded and brown; cephaliccap brownish olive [color 276]; dorsum sepia [color 279] with true cinnamon [color 260] to raw umber [color 26] bands (Figure 11 in Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021).
Color in life variation (n = 4): Dorsum jet black [color 300] with salmon [color 251] and white parietal band; venter white suffused with fuscous [color 283] forming a double stripe in juvenile QCAZ 8278 (Figures 11 and 12, Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021).

Quantitative variation (n = 28): Largest female 620 mm SVL, 75 mm TL; largest male 460 mm SVL, 87 mm TL; ventrals 162–175 (mean = 169; n = 3; SD = 6.5) in females, 158–167 (mean = 161; n = 5; SD = 3.6) in males; subcaudals 31–33 (mean = 32; n = 3; SD = 1.1) in females, 39–45 (mean = 43; n = 5; SD = 2.5) in males; supralabials seven (n = 16 sides); infralabials seven (n = 8 sides) or eight (n = 8 sides); preventrals two (n = 2), three (n = 4) or four (n = 2); adult mid-body diameter 6.8–8.5 mm; maxillary teeth seven (n = 14 sides) (Melo-Sampaio et al. 2021). 
CommentSynonymy: the specimen listed as A. touzeti (ANF 2590 = MZUTI 5409) by Arteaga et al. (2017) belongs to A. pachacamac. 
EtymologyAccording to the Inca mythology, Pachacámac or Pacha Kamaq (“creator of the land”; being pacha: “land” and kamaq: “creator” or “created” in Quechua language) was a god. The Pachacámac, son of the sun, came to our world and climbed to the highest summit (perhaps a volcano) to throw four stones to the four cardinal points, thereby taking possession of everything that covered his sight and reached his stones. The name also refers to fossorial lifestyle in high elevations. 
References
  • Arteaga A, Mebert K, Valencia JH, Cisneros-Heredia DF, Peñafiel N, Reyes-Puig C, Vieira-Fernandes JL, Guayasamin JM 2017. Molecular phylogeny of Atractus (Serpentes, Dipsadidae), with emphasis on Ecuadorian species and the description of three new taxa. ZooKeys 661: 91-123. - get paper here
  • Melo‐Sampaio, PR, Passos, P, Prudente, ALC, Venegas, PJ, Torres‐Carvajal, O. 2021. Systematic review of the polychromatic ground snakes Atractus snethlageae complex reveals four new species from threatened environments. J Zool Syst Evol Res. 2021; 59: 718– 747 - get paper here
 
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