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Atropoides picadoi (DUNN, 1939)

IUCN Red List - Atropoides picadoi - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Picado's Pit Viper
G: Picados Springlanzenotter 
SynonymTrimeresurus nummifer picadoi DUNN 1939: 165
Bothrops picadoi — SMITH & TAYLOR 1945: 183
Bothrops picadoi — TAYLOR 1951: 180
Bothrops picadoi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 53
Bothrops picadoi — VILLA et al. 1988
Atropoides picadoi — WERMAN 1992: 34
Porthidium picadoi — WELCH 1994: 101
Atropoides picadoi — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 242
Atropoides picadoi — JADIN et al. 2009
Atropoides picadoi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 86 
DistributionCosta Rica, Panama

Type locality: La Palma, Costa Rica.  
TypesHolotype: USNM 37753, female 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Similar to T. n. nummifer but with 146-152 ventrals. (Dunn 1939) 

Illustrations: See color plate 89 in VILLA et al. 1988.

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970. Kaiser et al. 2013 considered the generic name Adelynhoserserpenae Hoser 2012 invalid and rejected its use instead of Atropoides.

Type species: Trimeresurus nummifer picadoi DUNN 1939 is the type species of the genus Atropoides WERMAN 1992. However, A. picadoi is only distantly related to other Atropoides and may be placed in a different genus (CASTOE & PARKINSON 2006, Alencar et al. 2016). Campbell 2019 decided to leave picadoi in Atropoides (as it is the type species) but removed all other members of Atropoides and erected a new genus for them, Metlapilcoatlus Campbell et al. 2019. Note that Campbell et al. 2019 did not provide a diagnosis for the new genus.

Priority: The taxonomy of Latin American pitvipers is still uncertain. Both Cerrophidion Campbell and Lamar, 1992 and Atropoides Werman, 1992 were published the same year, with Atropoides having priority (15 June versus 14 August, respectively), and members within these and other genera may still be shuffled around when more reliable molecular data becomes available.

Habitat: terrestrial 
EtymologyThe species is named after Dr. Clodomiro Picado Twight (1887-1944), a leading Costa Rican botanist, zoologist, and toxicologist who studied venomous snakes and antivenins. See the Wikipedia entry on him.

The generic name is derived from the Greek words "atropos," one of the three fates in Greek mythology who cut the thread of life, and oides, meaning "similar to, or having the nature of. (The first Fate is Clotho who spins the thread of life, after which it is measured by Lachesis, the second Fate). The gender is masculine. 
  • Alencar, Laura R.V.; Tiago B. Quental, Felipe G. Grazziotin, Michael L. Alfaro, Marcio Martins, Mericien Venzon, Hussam Zaher 2016. Diversification in vipers: Phylogenetic relationships, time of divergence and shifts in speciation rates. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 105: 50–62 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Campbell, Jonathan; Darrel R. Frost and Todd A. Castoe 2019. A NEW GENERIC NAME FOR JUMPING PITVIPERS (SERPENTES: VIPERIDAE). Rev. Latinoamer. Herp. 2 (2): 52-53 - get paper here
  • Castoe, Todd A. and Christopher L. Parkinson 2006. Bayesian mixed models and the phylogeny of pitvipers (Viperidae: Serpentes). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39 (1): 91-110 - get paper here
  • Dunn,E.R. 1939. A new pit viper from Costa Rica. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 52: 165-166 - get paper here
  • Hoser, R. 2012. A new genus of Jumping Pitviper from Middle America (Serpentes: Viperidae). Australasian J. Herpetol. 10: 33-34 - get paper here
  • Jadin, Robert C.; Ronald L. Gutberlet Jr and Eric N. Smith 2010. Phylogeny, evolutionary morphology, and hemipenis descriptions of the Middle American jumping pitvipers (Serpentes: Crotalinae: Atropoides). J Zool Syst Evol Res 48(4): 360–365; doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0469.2009.00559.x - get paper here
  • JUSTINEK, UWE 2020. Für 6 Tage auf Schlangensuche in Costa Rica. Ophidia 14 (1): 15-26
  • Kaiser, H.; Crother, B.I.; Kelly, C.M.R.; Luiselli, L.; O’Shea, M.; Ota, H.; Passos, P.; Schleip, W.D. & Wüster, W. 2013. Best Practices: In the 21st Century, Taxonomic Decisions in Herpetology are Acceptable Only When Supported by a Body of Evidence and Published via Peer-Review. Herpetological Review 44 (1): 8-23
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Leenders, Twan 1995. The snakes of Rara Avis, Costa Rica II. Pit vipers (Crotalinae). Litteratura Serpentium 15 (1): 4-12
  • Martínez, C. V. 1983. Panamá: nuevo ámbito de distribución para la serpiente venenosa Bothrops picadoi (Dunn). ConCiencia (Univ. Panamá) 10: 26-27.
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Peters, James A.; Donoso-Barros, Roberto & Orejas-Miranda, Braulio 1970. Catalogue of the Neotropical Squamata: Part I Snakes. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 297: 347 pp. - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Costa Rica’s venomous snakes. Reptilia (GB) (48): 11-17 - get paper here
  • Porras, L.W. & Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen Costa Ricas. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 20-27 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Smith, Hobart M. & Taylor, Edward H. 1945. An annotated checklist and key to the snakes of Mexico. Bull. US Natl. Mus. (187): iv + 1-239 - get paper here
  • Solorzano, A. 2004. Serpientes de Costa Rica - Snakes of Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica, 792 pp.
  • Taylor,E.H. 1951. A brief review ot the snakes of Costa Rica. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 34 (1): 3-188 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werman, S. D. 1984. Taxonomic comments on the Costa Rican pit viper Bothrops picadoi. Journal of Herpetology 18 (2): 207-210 - get paper here
  • Werman,S.D. 1992. Phylogenetic relationships of Central and South American pitvipers of the genus Bothrops (sensu lato): cladistic analyses of biochemical and anatomical characters. In: J.A. Campbell and E.D. Brodie (eds.): Biology of the Pitvipers. Selva, Tyler, Texas, pp. 21-40
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