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Bipes biporus (COPE, 1894)

IUCN Red List - Bipes biporus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaBipedidae, Amphisbaenia, Lacertoidea, Squamata
Common NamesE: Five-toed Worm Lizard
S: Dos Manos de Cinco Dedos 
SynonymEuchirotes biporus COPE 1894
Euchirotes diporus COPE 1896: 313 (in errore)
Bipes biporus — STEBBINS 1985: 242
Bipes biporus — LINER 1994
Bipes biporus — LINER 2007
Bipes biporum — LANGNER 2019 
DistributionMexico (W Baja California Sur)

Type locality: ‘‘Cape San Lucas, Lower California’’ (= Baja California, Mexico).  
TypesLectotype: USNM 21324 (Cochran, 1961: 110). Lectoparatypes: CAS 50187; MCZ 11813; USNM 8568, 12599, 21316, 21317, 21320–21325 (La Paz, Baja California, in the catalog of the United States National Museum). 
  • Cole, Charles J.;Gans, Carl 1987. Chromosomes of Bipes, Mesobaena, and other Amphisbaenians (Reptilia), with comments on their evolution. American Museum Novitates (2869): 1-9 - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1894. On the genera and species of Euchirotidae. American Naturalist 28: 436-437. - get paper here
  • Cope, E.D. 1896. The mesenteries of the Sauria. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1896: 308-314. - get paper here
  • Dial, B.E., R.E. Gatten, Jr. & S. Kamel 1987. Energetics of Concertina Locomotion in Bipes biporus (Reptilia: Amphisbaenia) Copeia 1987 (2): 470-477. - get paper here
  • Gans, C., G.C. Huang & H.F. Clark 1967. The Diphyletism of the Amphisbaenia (Reptilia): A Re-Evaluation Based upon Chromosome Counts Copeia 1967 (2): 485-487. - get paper here
  • Gorman, George C.; Wilson, Allan C.; Nakanishi, Mikiye 1971. A biochemical approach towards the study of reptilian phylogeny: evolution of serum albumin and lactic dehydrogenase. Systematic Zoology 20(2):167-185. - get paper here
  • Jones, L.L. & Lovich, R.E. 2009. Lizards of the American Southwest. A photographic field guide. Rio Nuevo Publishers, Tucson, AZ, 568 pp. [review in Reptilia 86: 84] - get paper here
  • Kearney, M. 2002. Appendicular Skeleton in Amphisbaenians (Reptilia: Squamata). Copeia 2002 (3):719–738 - get paper here
  • Kearney, M. 2003. Diet in the amphisbaenian Bipes biporus. Journal of Herpetology 37:404-408 - get paper here
  • LANGNER, C. 2019. Nicht alltägliche Einblicke in Mexikos Unterwelt - die erstaunliche Lebensweise der bizarren mexikanischen Handwühlen der Gattung Bipes Elaphe 2019 (6): 28-31
  • Leviton, Alan E.; Banta, Benjamin H. 1964. Midwinter reconnaissance of the herpetofauna of the Cape Region of Baja California, Mexico. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 30 (7): 127-156 - get paper here
  • Liner, Ernest A. 2007. A CHECKLIST OF THE AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MEXICO. Louisiana State University Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science 80: 1-60 - get paper here
  • Love, B. 2009. Die Vergessenen. Reptilia (Münster) 14 (78): 83-84 - get paper here
  • Macey, J.R.; Schulte, J.A., Larson, A. & Papenfuss, T.J. 1998. Tandem duplication via light-strand synthesis may provide a precursor for mitochondrial genomic rearrangement. Mol. Biol. Evol. 15 (1): 71-75 - get paper here
  • Papenfuss, T.J. 1982. The ecology and systematics of the amphisbaenian genus Bipes. Occ. Pap. Cal. Acad. Sci. (136): 42 pp. - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
  • Westphal, N., Mahlow, K., Head, J. J., & Müller, J. 2019. Pectoral myology of limb-reduced worm lizards (Squamata, Amphisbaenia) suggests decoupling of the musculoskeletal system during the evolution of body elongation. BMC Evolutionary Biology 19(1): 16 - get paper here
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