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Bitis rubida BRANCH, 1997

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Red Adder 
SynonymBitis rubida BRANCH 1997
Bitis cornuta albanica HEWITT 1937: 76 (part.)
Bitis inornata FITZSIMONS 1946: 358
Bitis cornuta inornata — UNDERWOOD 1968: 84
Bitis cornuta albanica — FITZSIMONS 1962
Bitis cornuta cornuta — HAACKE 1975
Bitis caudalis VISSER 1979 (part)
Bitis cornuta inornata — BROADLEY 1983 (part)
Bitis cornuta-inornata complex — BURGER 1993
Bitis inornata complex — BRANCH & BAUER 1995
Bitis (Calechidna) rubida — LENK et al. 1999
Bitis rubida — BRANCH 1999: 53
Bitis rubida — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 365
Bitis rubida — DOBIEY & VOGEL 2007
Bitis (Calechidna) rubida — WITTENBERG et al. 2014
Bitis rubida — WALLACH et al. 2014: 94
Bitis (Calechidna) rubida — BARLOW et al. 2019 
DistributionSouth Africa (W Cape Province)

Type locality: Jeep track above Farm Driehoek, Cedarberg Mountains, Western Cape Province, South Africa (32°25’ 44’’ S, 19° 12’ 30’’ E)  
TypesHolotype: PEM R12582 
CommentVenomous! Sympatric with Bitis cornuta and Bitis atropos on the upper slopes and summit of the Cedarberg, and with the latter on the Swartberg. The species was previously discussed and illustrated (as the Cedarberg population of Bitis inornatus) by Spawls and Branch (1995). 
  • Barlow A, Wüster W, Kelly CMR, Branch WR, Phelps T, Tolley KA. 2019. Ancient habitat shifts and organismal diversification are decoupled in the African viper genus Bitis (Serpentes: Viperidae). J Biogeogr. 46: 1234– 1248 - get paper here
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Branch, W. R. & BAUER, A. M. 1995. The Herpetofauna of the Little Karoo, Western Cape, South Africa, with notes on life history and taxonomy. Herpetological Natural History 3 (1): 47-89
  • Branch, W.R. 1999. Dwarf adders of the Bitis cornuta-inornata complex (Serptentes: Viperidae) in Southern Africa. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 39-63
  • Branch,W.R. 1997. A new adder (Bitis; Viperidae) from the Western Cape Province, South Africa. South African J Zoology 32 (2): 37 - get paper here
  • Burger, M. 1993. The herpetofauna of Anysberg Nature Reserve, Cape Province, South Africa. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa 42: 1-12 - get paper here
  • CONRADIE, WERNER; WILLIAM R. BRANCH, & GILLIAN WATSON 2019. Type specimens in the Port Elizabeth Museum, South Africa, including the historically important Albany Museum collection. Part 2: Reptiles (Squamata). Zootaxa 4576 (1): 001–045 - get paper here
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa - Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • FitzSimons, V. 1946. An account of the reptiles and amphibians collected on an expedition to the Cape Province, October to December, 1940. Annals Transvaal Mus. 20: 351-377 - get paper here
  • FitzSimons, V. 1962. Snakes of Southern Africa. Purnell (Cape town & Johannesburg), 423 pp.
  • Haacke, W.D. 1975. Description of a new adder (Viperidae, Reptilia) from Southern Africa, with a discussion of related forms. Cimbebasia (A) 4: 115-128
  • Hewitt, J. 1937. A guide to the vertebrate fauna of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, Part II: reptile, amphibians, and freshwater fishes. Grahamstown, vii + 141 pp.
  • KLOSE, L. 2013. Bitis rubida (Branch, 1997) Reproduction. African Herp News (59): 29-32 - get paper here
  • Lenk,P.; Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U. & Wink,M. 1999. Phylogeny and taxonomic subdivision of Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae) based on molecular evidence. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • Martínez del Mármol, G. 2020. The phenotypic variability of the Genus Bitis Gray 1842, with remarks in its resemblance to other vipers. In: Martínez, G., León, R., Jiménez-Robles, O., González De la Vega, J. P., Gabari, V., Rebollo, B., Sánchez-Tójar, A., Fernández-Cardenete, J. R., Gállego, J. (Eds.). Amphibians and Reptiles of Morocco and Western Sahara - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Spawls, S., Branch, B. 1995. The Dangerous Snakes of Africa. Blandford, London, 192 pp.
  • Underwood G. 1968. On the status of some South Africna vipers. Ann. Cape Prov, Mus. 6 (9): 81-85
  • Visser J 1979. New and reconfirmed records for the Cape Province with notes on some “rare” species (Sauria, Serpentes, and Anura). J. Herp. Assoc. Africa 21: 40-50 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wittenberg, Rod D. & Robert C. Jadin & Allyson M. Fenwick & Ronald L. Gutberlet Jr. 2014. Recovering the evolutionary history of Africa’s most diverse viper genus: morphological and molecular phylogeny of Bitis (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Org Divers Evol, DOI 10.1007/s13127-014-0185-3
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