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Bitis schneideri (BOETTGER, 1886)

IUCN Red List - Bitis schneideri - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Viperinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Namaqua Dwarf Adder, Namaqua Puff Adder 
SynonymVipera schneideri BOETTGER 1886: 8
Bitis caudalis paucisquamatus MERTENS 1954: 218
Bitis paucisquamata MERTENS 1954: 218
Bitis schneideri — HAACKE 1975: 119
Bitis schneideri — WELCH 1994: 29
Bitis schneideri — MATTISON 1995: 83
Bitis (Calechidna) schneideri — LENK et al. 1999
Bitis schneideri — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 366
Bitis schneideri — MATTISON 2007: 85
Bitis (Calechidna) schneideri — WITTENBERG et al. 2014
Bitis schneideri — WALLACH et al. 2014: 94
Bitis (Calechidna) schneideri — BARLOW et al. 2019 
DistributionSW Namibia (southern regions of Namib desert, from Lüderitz Bay to Little Namaqualand),
Republic of South Africa

Type locality: "Angra Pequenia"[Lüderitz Bay, Namibia].  
TypesHolotype: SMF 21019 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Oskar Schneider (1841-1903) of Dresden, who was a Professor, a conchologist and one of Boettger's friends. 
  • Alexander, G. J. and Maritz, B. 2015. Sampling interval affects the estimation of movement parameters in four species of African snakes. Journal of Zoology 297: 309–318, doi:10.1111/jzo.12280 - get paper here
  • Barlow A, Wüster W, Kelly CMR, Branch WR, Phelps T, Tolley KA. 2019. Ancient habitat shifts and organismal diversification are decoupled in the African viper genus Bitis (Serpentes: Viperidae). J Biogeogr. 46: 1234– 1248 - get paper here
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boettger, O. 1886. Beitrag zur Herpetologie und Malakozoologie Südwest-Afrikas. 1. Zur Kenntniss der Fauna von Angra Pequenia. Abh. senckenb. naturf. Ges. (Frankfurt) 1886: 3-29 - get paper here
  • Boycott, R.C. 1987. Geographical Distribution - Bitis schneideri. J. Herp. Assoc. Africa (33): 29-29 - get paper here
  • Branch, William R. 1993. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Southern Africa. Cape Town: Struik Publishers, 144 S.
  • Branch, William R. 1994. Herpetofauna of the Sperrgebeit [sic] Region of Southern Namibia. Herpetological Natural History 2 (1): 1-11.
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa - Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Haacke, W.D. 1975. Description of a new adder (Viperidae, Reptilia) from Southern Africa, with a discussion of related forms. Cimbebasia (A) 4: 115-128
  • Herrmann, H.-W.; W.R. Branch 2013. Fifty years of herpetological research in the Namib Desert and Namibia with an updated and annotated species checklist. Journal of Arid Environments 93: 94–115 - get paper here
  • Lenk,P.; Herrmann,H. W.; Joger,U. & Wink,M. 1999. Phylogeny and taxonomic subdivision of Bitis (Reptilia: Viperidae) based on molecular evidence. Kaupia (Darmstadt) (8): 31-38 - get paper here
  • Mallow, D. Ludwig, D. & Nilson, G. 2003. True Vipers: Natural History and Toxinology of Old World Vipers. Krieger, Malabar, Florida, 410 pp. [review in HR 35: 200, Reptilia 35: 74]
  • MARITZ, B. 2012. Bitis schneideri Boetger 1886 Relative Prey Size. African Herp News (57): 16 - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan 2013. To Run or Hide?: Escape Behaviour in a Cryptic African snake. African Zoology Oct 2012, Vol. 47, No. 2: 270-274 - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan & Graham J. Alexander 2013. Namaqua Dwarf Adders are generalist predators. African Journal of Herpetology - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan & Graham J. Alexander 2014. Namaqua Dwarf Adders are generalist predators. African Journal of Herpetology 63: 79-86 - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan and Graham J. Alexander 2011. Morphology, Sexual Dimorphism, and Growth in the Smallest Viperid, Bitis schneideri (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Journal of Herpetology 45 (4): 457-462. - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan and Graham J. Alexander 2012. Movement Patterns in the Smallest Viper, Bitis schneideri. Copeia Dec 2012, Vol. 2012, No. 4: 732-737. - get paper here
  • Maritz, Bryan and Graham J. Alexander 2012. Population Density and Survival Estimates of the African Viperid, Bitis schneideri. Herpetologica 68 (2): 195-202. - get paper here
  • Martínez del Mármol, G. 2020. The phenotypic variability of the Genus Bitis Gray 1842, with remarks in its resemblance to other vipers. In: Martínez, G., León, R., Jiménez-Robles, O., González De la Vega, J. P., Gabari, V., Rebollo, B., Sánchez-Tójar, A., Fernández-Cardenete, J. R., Gállego, J. (Eds.). Amphibians and Reptiles of Morocco and Western Sahara - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 1995. The Encyclopedia of Snakes. New York: Facts on File, 256 pp.
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mertens, R. 1954. Neue Schlangenrassen aus Südwest- und Südafrika. Zool. Anz. 152: 213-219
  • Phelps, T. 2010. Old World Vipers. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 558 pp. [critical review in Sauria 33 (3): 19 and HR 43: 503]
  • Schleicher, Alfred 2015. Reptilien Namibias. Namibia Scientific  Society, 276 pp.
  • Schleicher, Alfred 2020. Reptiles of Namibia. Kuiseb Publishers, Windhoek, Namibia, 271 pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wittenberg, Rod D. & Robert C. Jadin & Allyson M. Fenwick & Ronald L. Gutberlet Jr. 2014. Recovering the evolutionary history of Africa’s most diverse viper genus: morphological and molecular phylogeny of Bitis (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae). Org Divers Evol, DOI 10.1007/s13127-014-0185-3
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