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Boa imperator DAUDIN, 1803

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Boinae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
SubspeciesBoa imperator imperator DAUDIN 1803
Boa imperator sabogae (BARBOUR 1906) 
Common NamesE: Central American Boa Constrictor
E: Pearl Island Boa [sabogae]
S: Mazacoatl 
SynonymBoa imperator DAUDIN 1803: 150
Boa constrictor imperator DAUDIN 1803
Boa eques EYDOUX & SOULEYET 1842: 144
Boa imperator — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 519
Boa eques — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1844: 521
Boa diviniloquax var. mexicana JAN 1863: 83
Boa imperator — JAN 1864
Boa eques — JAN 1864
Boa constrictor var. isthmica GARMAN 1883: 9
Boa imperator — GARMAN 1884: 8
Boa mexicana — GARMAN 1884: 10
Boa imperator — BOULENGER 1893: 119
Boa mexicana — BOULENGER 1893: 119
Constrictor constrictor imperator — IHERING 1911: 8
Constrictor constrictor imperator — TAYLOR 1938: 489
Constrictor constrictor imperator — TAYLOR 1951: 29
Boa constrictor imperator — FORCART 1951
Boa constrictor sabogae — FORCART 1951
Constrictor constrictor imperator — MERTENS 1952: 59
Constrictor constrictor imperator — LEWIS 1956
Boa constrictor imperator — STIMSON 1969
Boa constrictor imperator — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa constrictor — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa constrictor — ENDERSON et al. 2009
Boa imperator — HYNKOVA et al. 2009
Boa imperator — REYNOLDS et al. 2014
Boa imperator — SUNYER 2014
Boa imperator — SOLIS et al. 2014
Boa imperator — MCCRANIE 2015
Boa imperator — WOOLRICH-PIÑA et al. 2018
Boa imperator imperator — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 6
Boa imperator imperator — MURPHY & CRUTCHFIELD 2019

Boa imperator sabogae (BARBOUR 1906)
Epicrates sabogae BARBOUR 1906: 226
Constrictor constrictor sabogae — BARBOUR & LOVERIDGE 1929: 139
Boa constrictor sabogae — BINDER & LAMP 2007
Boa constrictor sabogae — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 7
Boa imperator sabogage — MURPHY & CRUTCHFIELD 2019: 194 
DistributionMexico (Yucatan, Quintana Roo, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Chihuahua [HR 32: 277], Michoacan, Tamaulipas, Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Guerrero, Querétaro, Veracruz, Guanajuato), San Andres Island (Colombia), Panama, Nicaragua, Honduras, Belize, Ecuador, Guatemala, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Kolumbien

imperator: Type locality: “l’Amerique meridionale, principalement au Mexique”

sabogae: Gulf of Panama (Islas Perlas, Isla del Rey, Isla San José, and others); Type locality: Saboga Island (Panama).  
Reproductionviviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA, but not assuredly identifiable, according to Guibe In Stuart 1963: 84. Not located in MNHN-RA collections (I. Ineich, March 2019)
Holotype: MCZ 176002, subadult male [longicauda]
Syntypes: MCZ 6986, MCZ R-177139, skin only, Wilmot W. Brown, Jr. collector [sabogae] 
CommentSynonymy: Card et al. 2016 found genetic evidence that B. sigma may be a valid species along the Pacific versant of Mexico. However, they did not provide any morphological or other details that may diagnose this taxon. There seems to be substantial overlap in ranges of B. imperator and B. sigma, especially in Oaxaca (the North and Central American clades in Card et al. 2016), but it remains unclear of there is any hybridization in this area.

Subspecies: Hynková et al. (2010) suggested that B. c. imperator may be a full species. They also suggested that it would comprise all populations of the Central American clade, including B. c. sabogae and B. c. longicauda. WALLACH et al. 2014: 95 listed imperator as synonym of B. constrictor. Boa constrictor sigma is now considered a valid species by most authors.

Distribution: see map in Bonny 2007. 
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