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Bothrocophias andianus (AMARAL, 1923)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Andean Lancehead 
SynonymBothrops andiana AMARAL 1923: 103
Bothrops andianus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 43
Bothrops andianus — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothrops andianus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 253
Bothrops andianus — HARVEY 2005: 12
Bothrops andianus — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops (Daraninus) andianus — HOSER 2012
Bothrocophias andianus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops andianus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 115 
DistributionPeru (Cuzco, Puno), Bolivia (Cordillera Real)

Type locality: Machu Picchu, Departamento Cuzco, Peru, 8000-10,000 ft.  
TypesHolotype: MCZ R8832. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Bothrops andianus is distinguished from all congeners and from species of Bothrocophias and Bothriopsis by the following combination of characters: (1) lacunolabial present; (2) dorsal keels nontuberculate; (3) infralabials and gulars immaculate in adults; (4) canthorostrals absent; (5) most subcaudals divided; (6) ventrals 166–179 and subcaudals 49–63; (7) loreal subrectangular and elongate; (8) canthals moderate and separated by 3–5 scales; (9) internasals separated by 1–3 scales, rarely (9%) in contact; (10) postocular stripe distinct and black; (11) dorsum dull green to brown with pattern of subtriangular blotches or French telephone-shaped marks; black edging of dorsal blotches becoming 2–4 distinctive rows of black blotches on posterior body and base of tail (Harvey 2005: 13). 

Distribution: see map in Haprvey 2005: 12 (Fig. 7). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Amaral, A. do 1923. New genera and species of snakes. Proc. New England Zool. Club 8: 85-105 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • Carrasco, Paola A.; Leynaud, Gerardo C.; Scrocchi, Gustavo J 2010. Redescription of the southernmost snake species, Bothrops ammodytoides (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae). Amphibia-Reptilia 31: 323-338 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Jansen, Martin 2008. Die Lanzenottern der Gattung Bothrops in Bolivien. Draco 8 (33): 50-56 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • QUINTEROS, OLIVER & RODRIGO AGUAYO. 2021. Predation by a Black Mussurana, Clelia clelia (Daudin 1803) (Serpentes: Dipsadidae), on an Andean Lancehead, Bothrocophias andianus (Amaral 1923), in Bolivia. Reptiles & Amphibians 28(3): 502–503. - get paper here
  • TIMMS, JUAN; JUAN C. CHAPARRO, PABLO J. VENEGAS, DAVID SALAZAR-VALENZUELA, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI, JAIRO CUEVAS, GERARDO LEYNAUD, PAOLA A. CARRASCO 2019. A new species of pitviper of the genus Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the Central Andes of South America. Zootaxa 4656 (1): 099–120 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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