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Bothrocophias campbelli (FREIRE-LASCANO, 1991)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesS: Víbora boca de sapo 
SynonymBothrops campbelli FREIRE-LASCANO 1991
Trigonocephalus pulcher PETERS 1863
Lachesis pulcher — BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops pulchra — AMARAL 1930
Porthidium almawebi SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993
Bothrops campbelli — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 259
Bothrocophias campbelli — GUTBERLET & CAMPBELL 2001
Bothrocophias campbelli — CARRERA et al. 2009
Bothrocophias campbelli — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrocophias campbelli — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113 
DistributionNW Ecuador, Colombia, elevation 1000-1500 m

Type locality: Provincia de Chimborazo, Ecuador  
TypesHolotype: INHMT 1956 

SCHATTI & KRAMER (1993) discovered that the holotype of Bothrops pulcher (PETERS 1852) actuall represents what had been referred to in much of the literature as Bothriopsis albocarinata (SHREVE 1934) and therefore the name pulcher has priority. The ICZN resolved the issue as follows (Opinion 1939): the correct name for the highland, arboreal pitviper recently known as Bothriopsis albocarinata is Bothriopsis pulchra (PETERS), and the snake referred to as Bothrops pulcher by CAMPBELL & LAMAR (1989) and many previous workers is now appropriately knwn as Bothrops campbelli FREIRE-LASCANO. See also discussion in MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999. 
EtymologyNamed after Jonathan A. Campbell (13 May 1947-), American herpetologist. 
  • Arteaga AF, Bustamante-Enríquez LM and Guayasamin JM 2013. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Mindo. - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • Carrera, C. et al. 2009. Guía de Campo de los Pequeños Vertebrados del Distrito Metropolitano de Quito (DMQ). Publicación Miscelánea N° 5. Serie de Publicaciones del Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales (MECN) – Fondo Ambiental del MDMQ. 1-89 pp. Imprenta Nuevo Arte. Quito-Ecuador.
  • Castro, F.; Ayerbe, S.; Calderón, J.J. & Cepeda, B. 2005. Nuevo registro para Colombia de Bothrocophias campbelli y notas sobre B. colombianus y B. myersi (Serpentes:Viperidae). Novedades Colombianas 8(1): 57-64 - get paper here
  • Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F., Maria Olga Borja, Proaño and Jean Marc Touzet. 2006. Distribution and natural history of the Ecuadorian Toad-headed Pitvipers of the genus Bothrocophias. Herpetozoa 19 (1/2):17-26. - get paper here
  • Freire-Lascano, A. 1991. Dos Nuevas Especies de Bothrops en el Ecuador. Publ. Trab. Cient. Ecuador, Univ. Técn. Machala 2: 11 pp.
  • Gutberlet, R.L. & Campbell, J.A. 2001. Generic recognition for a neglected lineage of South American pitvipers (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of a new species from the Colombian Chocó. American Museum Novitates (3316): 1-15 - get paper here
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 1999. Opinion 1939. Trigonocephalus pulcher Peters, 1862 (currently Bothrops pulcher, Bothriechis pulcher or Bothriopsis pulchra; Reptilia, Serpentes): defined by the holotype, and not a neotype; Bothrops campbelli Freire Lascano, 1991: specific name place Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 56 (3): 218-220. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Rojas-Rivera, Alejandra, Karen Castillo and Paul David Alfonso Gutierrez-Cardenas. 2013. Bothrocophias campbelli (Campbell's toad-headed pitviper, vibora boca de sapo de Campbell) diet/ophiophagy. Herpetological Review 44 (3): 518 - get paper here
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1993. Ecuadorianische Grubenottern der Gattungen Bothriechis, Bothrops und Porthidium (Serpentes: Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100 (2): 235-278 - get paper here
  • TIPANTIZA-TUGUMINAGO, LUIS; DIEGO VILLARREAL-MEJÍA & PABLO MEDRANO-VIZCAÍNO. 2021. BOTHROCOPHIAS CAMPBELLI (Campbell’s Toad-headed Pitviper). MALE COMBAT. Herpetological Review 52 (3): 657–658. - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • VALENCIA, J. H. & GARZÓN, K. & BETANCOURT-YÉPEZ, R. 2008. Notes on the reproduction of the Ecuadorian toad-headed pitviper Bothrocophias campbelli (FREIRE-LASCANO, 1991) [Short Note]. Herpetozoa 21 - get paper here
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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