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Bothrocophias hyoprora (AMARAL, 1935)

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Hognose Lancehead
Portuguese: Cuiama-Nariguda, Focinho-de-Porco, Jararaca, Jararaca-Bico-de-Folha, Jararaca-Bicuda, Jararaca-de-Focinho-Levantado, Jararaca-Nariguda 
SynonymBothrops hyopora AMARAL 1935
Bothrops hyoporus — AMARAL 1935
Bothrops hyoprora AMARAL 1937: 1766
Bothrops hyopora — PETERS et al. 1970: 46
Porthidium hyoprora — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989: 317
Porthidium hyoprora — WELCH 1994: 101
Bothrops hyoprora — MCDIARMID et al. 1999
Bothrops pessoai PRADO 1939
Bothrops hyoprorus — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 261
Bothrocophias hyoprora — GUTBERLET & CAMPBELL 2001
Bothrops hyoprora — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothrocophias hyoprora — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrocophias hyoprora — WALLACH et al. 2014: 113
Bothrocophias hyoprora — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionE Ecuador, S Colombia, NW Brazil (Amazonas, Rondonia, Pará, Acre), NE Peru, NE Bolivia

Type locality: La Padrera, Colombia.  
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 9199, male 

Type species: Bothrops hyopora AMARAL 1935 is the type species of the genus Bothrocophias GUTBERLET & CAMPBELL 2001. 
  • Amaral, A. 1935. Estudos sobre ophídios neotropicos XXXIII. Novas especies de ophídios do Colombia. Mem. Inst. Butantan 9: 219-223 + 1 plate - get paper here
  • Amaral, A. D. 1954. Contribuicao ao conhecimento dos ofidios neotropicos XXXVI. Redescricao da especie Bothrops hyoprora Amaral, 1935. Mem. Inst. Butantan 26: 221-225 - get paper here
  • Amaral,A. do 1937. New species of ophidians from Colombia. Compte Rendu 12th Congress Internat. Zool., Lisbon 3 [139 (141)]: 1762-1767 [1935]
  • BERNARDE, P.S., ALBUQUERQUE, S., BARROS, T.O. & TURCI, L.C.B. 2012. Serpentes do Estado de Rondônia, Brasil. Biota Neotropica 12 (3): 1-29 - get paper here
  • Bernarde, P.S.; E.S. Amaral; M.A.D. Vale. 2011. Squamata, Serpentes, Viperidae, Bothrocophias hyoprora (Amaral, 1935): Distribution extension in the state of Acre, northern Brazil. Check List 7 (6): 813-814 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F., Maria Olga Borja, Proaño and Jean Marc Touzet. 2006. Distribution and natural history of the Ecuadorian Toad-headed Pitvipers of the genus Bothrocophias. Herpetozoa 19 (1/2):17-26. - get paper here
  • De Carvalho, Vinícius T., Rafael de Fraga, Eduardo S. Eler, Ricardo A. Kawashita-Ribeiro, Eliana Feldberg, Richard C. Vogt, Marcos A. De Carvalho, Janaina da C. De Noronha, Luis Henrique Condrati and Shanna Bittencourt. 2013. Toad-headed pitviper Bothrocophias hyoprora (Amaral, 1935) (Serpentes, Viperidae): New records of geographic range in Brazil, hemipenial morphology, and chromosomal characterization. Herpetological Review 44 (3): 410-414 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Gutberlet, R.L. & Campbell, J.A. 2001. Generic recognition for a neglected lineage of South American pitvipers (Squamata: Viperidae: Crotalinae), with the description of a new species from the Colombian Chocó. American Museum Novitates (3316): 1-15 - get paper here
  • Jansen, Martin 2008. Die Lanzenottern der Gattung Bothrops in Bolivien. Draco 8 (33): 50-56 - get paper here
  • Jungfer, K.H. 2006. Diversität der Amphibienfauna des oberen Amazonas. Elaphe 14 (4): 40-44
  • Lima Moraes, L. J. C. de, do Nascimento Rainha, R., de Pinho Werneck, F., de Souza Oliveira, A. F., Gascon, C., & de Carvalho, V. T. 2022. Amphibians and reptiles from a protected area in western Brazilian Amazonia (Reserva Extrativista do Baixo Juruá). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 62, e202262054-e202262054 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Mendes-Pinto, T. J. & S. Marques de Souza 2011. Preliminary assessment of amphibians and reptiles from Floresta Nacional do Trairão, with a new snake record for the Pará state, Brazilian Amazon. Salamandra 47 (4): 199-206 - get paper here
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Parkinson,C.L. 1999. Molecular systematics and biogeographical history of pitvipers as determined by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Copeia 1999 (3): 576-586 - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Peters , J. A. 1960. The snakes of Ecuador; check list and key. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 122: 489-541 - get paper here
  • Torres-Carvajal O, Pazmiño-Otamendi G, Salazar-Valenzuela D. 2019. Reptiles of Ecuador: a resource-rich portal, with a dynamic checklist and photographic guides. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13 (1): [General Section]: 209–229 (e178) - get paper here
  • Valencia, J. H., K. Garzón-Tello & M. E. Barragán-Paladines 2016. Serpientes venenosas del Ecuador: sistemática, taxonomía, historia natural, conservación, envenenamiento y aspectos antropológicos. Quito, Ecuador, Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés, Universidad de Texas, Fondo Ambiental Nacional, 652 pp. [review in HR 49 (1): 152, 2018]
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Whithworth, A. & Beirne, C. 2011. Reptiles of the Yachana Reserve. Global Vision International, 130 pp. - get paper here
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