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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Jabre’s Lancehead
P: jararaca-do-jabre 
DistributionBrazil (Paraíba)

Type locality: Pico do Jabre (07°1101000S, 37°2505300W), municipality of Maturéia, state of Paraíba, Brazil  
TypesHolotype: IBSP 92904, adult female, collected by Marcelo C. Kokubum, Ítalo T. Ferreira, Claudenice da Silva, and Ingrid G.N. Henriques at 10:09 pm, on 5 March 2016, at (Figs. 4A and 4B).
PARATYPES: LHUFCG 1914 (male), collected by Marcelo N. de C. Kokubum, Ítalo T. Ferreira, Claudenice da Silva, and Ingrid G.N. Henriques on 3 March 2016, between 9:30 and 10:00 am (Fig. 4C), and LHUFCG 1915 (female), collected by Marcelo N. de C. Kokubum, Ítalo T. Ferreira, Claudenice da Silva, and Ingrid G.N. Henriques on 3 March 2016, between 9:30 and 10:00 am. Same locality as holotype. 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS: Bothrops jabrensis sp. nov. is distinguished from other species of the B. jararaca group by the following combination of characters: (1) smaller adult size; (2) dorsum predominantly grayish and (or) brownish; (3) venter whitish or light grayish; (4) postorbital stripes brownish and narrow, with a thin white border; (5) 8 supralabials; (6) 11 infralabials; (7) 2 postoculars; (8) 4–6 prefoveals; (9) 1–2 postfoveals; (10) lacunolabial absent; (11) 4–5 interoculabials; (12) 7 temporals; (13) 5–8 intersupraoculars; (14) 23–25 interrictals; (15) 4–5 gulars; (16) 16–18 lateral blotches of body; (17) 21– 22 anterior dorsals in females, 21 in male; (18) 21–23 midbody dorsals in females, 21 in male; (19) 17–19 posterior dorsals in females, 17 in male; (20) 177–182 ventrals in females, 176 in male; (21) 49–51 subcaudals in females, 53 in male; (22) single anal plate. (BARBO et al. 2022)

COMPARISONS: A summary of some meristic and morphometric characters is presented in Table 1. When compared with representatives of the B. jararaca species group, B. jabrensis sp. nov. presents a lower number of ventrals (176 in males; 177–182 in females), and it is distinguished from the B. jararaca from NC (184–219 in males; 188–220 in females), B. jararaca from SC (182– 202 in males; 188–208 in females), B. otavioi (182–191 in males; 185–194 in females), and B. sazimai (195–206 in males; 198–214 in females). The new species has also lower numbers of anterior dorsals and dorsals at midbody (21–22 and 21–23 scales, respectively), and it is distinguished from B. jararaca of SC (22–27 and 22–26), B. alcatraz (23–28 and 23–26), B. insularis (23–28 and 22–27), and B. otavioi (23–25 and 23–26). Additionally, the new species differs by the lower numbers of subcaudals (53 in males; 49–51 in females) from B. sazimai (63–69 in males; 54–65 in females), and by the grayish and brownish coloration from B. insularis (pale or yellowish coloration).
The new species is easily distinguished from species included in the B. neuwiedi group (for a detailed description of the B. neuwiedi group see Silva and Rodrigues 2008) by the invariable grayish ground color of the body (versus a polychromatic and extremely variable background color in the B. neuwiedi species group). Additionally, the dorsum of the head in B. jabrensis sp. nov. presents irregular and undefined markings (versus well-defined markings in the B. neuwiedi group), the supralabials and gulars display distinct and spotless light gray coloration (versus dark or strongly pigmented in most species of the B. neuwiedi group), the ground color of the venter is whitish and speckless (versus creamish and speckled in black in the B. neuwiedi group), and the lateral blotches of the body are similar to an inverted “V”, identical of those found in species included in the B. jararaca group (versus lateral blotches mostly trapezoidal or presenting a horseshoe pattern in the B. neuwiedi group).
Bothrops jabrensis sp. nov. is possibly sympatric with Bothrops erythromelas Amaral, 1923 and Bothrops lutzi (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1915) (see the Discussion), although it can be easily distinguished from B. erythromelas by the higher number of dorsal scales at midbody (21–23 versus 19–21 in B. erythromelas) and the higher numbers of ventrals (176–182 versus 139–158) and subcaudals (49–53 versus 32–42). From B. lutzi, the new species differs by the absence of white blotches in the supralabials, higher number of ventrals (176 versus 161–173 in males; 177–182 versus 159–179 in females), and higher number of subcaudals (53 versus 40–50 in males; 49–51 versus 34–46 in females). (BARBO et al. 2022)

COLOR IN LIFE: The color in life was grayish/brownish on dorsal surface with 16/17 lateral triangular/trapezoidal markings (saddles) that are irregularly defined, dark or brown–gray with well-defined borders, weakly light-grayish edged, opposite and alternate to each other in the middle of dorsum; dorsum of head grayish, with irregular and undefined dark-brown markings (Figs. 4A–4C); postorbital stripe is dark brown, bordered below by a very thin light line. The postorbital stripe extends from behind the eye, covering superior portion of 7th and 8th supralabials, up to four scales long behind rictus oris, downwards to ventral direction; gular region mostly whitish–creamish, with infralabials and symphysial finely speckled in gray; venter mostly whitish, covering cloacal plate; tail grayish dorsally, covered with small dark gray lateral blotches, with subcaudals mostly whitish in ventral plan.
(BARBO et al. 2022) 
CommentDistribution: see map in Barbo et al. 2022: 149 (Fig. 1). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet jabrensis is a noun in reference to the type locality where the new species was found, Pico do Jabre, an altitudinal Caatinga moist-forest enclave located at state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. 
  • Barbo, Fausto E.; Felipe G. Grazziotin, Gentil A. Pereira-Filho, Marco A. Freitas, Stephenson H.F. Abrantes, and Marcelo N. de C. Kokubum. 2022. Isolated by dry lands: integrative analyses unveil the existence of a new species and a previously unknown evolutionary lineage of Brazilian Lanceheads (Serpentes: Viperidae: Bothrops) from a Caatinga moist-forest enclave. Canadian Journal of Zoology 100 (2): 147-159 - get paper here
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