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Bothrops marmoratus DA SILVA & RODRIGUES, 2008

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Marbled lancehead
Portuguese: Jararaca, Jararaca-Marmorata, Jararaca-Pintada 
SynonymBothrops marmoratus DA SILVA & RODRIGUES 2008
Bothrops marmoratus — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops marmoratus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 118
Bothrops marmoratus — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Goiás, Minas Gerais)

Type locality: Ipameri (17°43’S, 48°09’W), State of Goiás, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: IBSP 55055, adult female, Paratypes: IBSP 
DiagnosisDiagnosis – The new species is distinguished from the 22 species of Bothrops by having a prelacunal not fused to the second supralabial (list in Campbell and Lamar 2004). On the other hand, it shares with fourteen other Bothrops species, the prelacunal separated from the second supralabial. Of these fourteen species of Bothrops, eight do not belong to the complex B. neuwiedi. B. marmoratus is distinguished from B. alternatus by having 5–9 intersupraoculars (vs. 8–13), 21–26 midbody dorsal scale rows (vs. usually 27–33 in B. alternatus), and by lacking a distinctive dorsal pattern of bold, headphone-shaped markings. It differs from B. ammodytoides by not having a canthus rostralis that is characteristically curved upward, and a distinctly raised snout. Bothrops marmoratus differs from B. cotiara and B. fonsecai by not showing conspicuous dark brown occipital stripes extending forward to the snout where they converge, forming a distinctive spear-shaped mark on the top of the head, as well as by having a venter brighter than these two species. It differs from B. erythromelas by having higher counts of midbody dorsal scale rows, ventrals, and subcaudals (19–21, 139–158 and 32–42, in B. erythromelas respectively). It can be distinguished from B. itapetiningae by the higher number of ventrals, and subcaudals (157182, and 32-50 in B. marmoratus vs. 144–160, and 26–38 in B. itapetiningae), from B. jonathani by having 21-26 midbody dorsal scale rows (vs. 30-33), and from Bothrops pictus by not showing dorsal blotches arranged mostly on the middorsum, fusing into a zigzag stripe (Campbell and Lamar 2004).
The other six remaining Bothrops species, together with B. marmoratus, belong to the B. neuwiedi complex. In general, they have 4-12 intersupraoculars, 1-2 rows of small scales between the subocular and fourth supralabial, prelacunal separated from second supralabial, 710 supralabials (usually 8-9), 9-13 infralabials (usually 10-11), 21-29 midbody dorsal scale rows, 157-187 ventrals in males, 158-189 ventrals in females, 39-61 divided subcaudals in males, 34-55 in females; often the top of the head with a blotch between the canthals, one pair close to supraoculars, and another pair in the occipital-temporal region; triangular to trapezoidal dorsolateral blotches that alternate or are opposite one another mid-dorsally; between two consecutive dorsolateral blotches there may or may not be one spot or blotch; the base of each dorsolateral blotch has a pair of oval or round blotches, that tend to form a lateral series of blotches typical in the complex; a series of brown or gray paraventral spots may be present; supralabials with some type of ornamentation in color; bronze or bright gold iris, dark pinkish gray tongue; white tail tip in juveniles; white or yellow venter with gray specks scattered throughout, that may form transverse markings throughout the scale sutures; lobes of hemipenis are moderately attenuated, with 28-35 medium to large spines in each one (Campbell and Lamar 2004). Therefore, Bothrops marmoratus may be distinguished from other species of the B. neuwiedi complex mainly through qualitative characteristics (Table 1, Figure 1 in DA SILVA & RODRIGUES 2008). Bothrops lutzi has dark brown or brown supralabials with small vertically elongated white blotches more conspicuous on the posterior half of the mouth, and white keels in many dorsal scales (Figure 1A). Bothrops neuwiedi has dorsolateral blotches with well-defined, white-edged borders, short postcephalic stripes; most supralabials black or dark brown with large, round white blotches (Figure 1B). Bothrops pauloensis has a melanic head, supralabials not finely stippled; posteriormost pair of occipital blotches generally ellipsoidal (Figure 1C). Bothrops mattogrossensis has dorsolateral blotches with well-defined borders, supralabials generally creamish-white with large dark brown blotches that cover most of the supralabials from the anterior half of the mouth; largest blotch is beneath the eye (Figure 1E). Bothrops diporus has postcephalic stripes (much) larger than the occipital blotches; supralabials generally creamish-white with large dark brown blotches that cover most of supralabials throughout the anterior half of the mouth; largest blotch directly under the eye (Figure 1F). In Bothrops pubescens more than half to all supralabials creamish-white with small, triangular dark blotches (covering less than half of the supralabial surface); dark blotches not very conspicuous, lying throughout the suture between two supralabials (Figure 1G). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a reference to the marbled aspect of the body pigmentation of this species. 
  • CARRASCO, PAOLA A.; FELIPE G. GRAZZIOTIN, ROY SANTA CRUZ FARFÁN, CLAUDIA KOCH, JOSÉ ANTONIO OCHOA, GUSTAVO J. SCROCCHI, GERARDO C. LEYNAUD, JUAN C. CHAPARRO 2019. A new species of Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from Pampas del Heath, southeastern Peru, with comments on the systematics of the Bothrops neuwiedi species group. Zootaxa 4565 (3): 301–344 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Guerra, V., Ramalho, W. P., Machado, I. F., & Brandão, R. A. 2022. Herpetofauna of the Serra do Tombador Nature Reserve, State of Goiás, Central Brazil. Arquivos de Zoologia, 53(3), 33-51 - get paper here
  • Machado, Taís, Vinícius X. Silva & Maria José de J. Silva 2013. Phylogenetic relationships within Bothrops neuwiedi group (Serpentes, Squamata): Geographically highly-structured lineages, evidence of introgressive hybridization and Neogene/Quaternary diversification. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 71: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Resende, Flávia Cappuccio de (coord.) 2023. O fantástico mundo dos animais peçonhentos: serpentes; características, história natural e reconhecimento das espécies peçonhentas de Minas Gerais. Belo Horizonte – Fundação Ezequiel Dias - get paper here
  • Silva, V.X. da; Rodrigues, M.T. 2008. Taxonomic revision of the Bothrops neuwiedi complex (Serpentes, Viperidae) with description of a new species. Phyllomedusa 7 (1): 45-90 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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