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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common Names 
Bothrops andianus — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004 (Fig. 126, not text) (not AMARAL 1923)
Bothrops mattogrossensis — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004 (Plate 645, not text) [not Amaral 1925]
Bothrops sanctaecrucis — MIRANDA-CALLE & AGUILAR-KIRIGIN 2011, part [not Hoge 1966]
DistributionBolivia (Santa Cruz)

Type locality: 13 km southwest to Refugio Los Volcanes (18°11'51.10"S, 63°40'5.95"W; 1658 m above sea level, asl hereafter), Cuevas Ecological Center, province of Florida, department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia  
TypesHolotype. MNK 5556, adult female; (Figs. 5A, 7A, 8B, F in Timms et al. 2019) collected by local people on March 11, 2017. The specimen was legated to MNK by J. Timms.
Paratypes. Nine specimens. Subadult female (MNK 5557; Fig. 5B, 7B) collected by J. Timms on March 22, 2017 at El Palmar, (18°11'46.19"S, 63°40'1.82"W, 1629 m asl), Cuevas Ecological Center, province of Florida, department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia; adult male (MNK 4313) collected by H. Fernández and M. Amaya on April 22, 2007 at Laguna Volcan (18°7'19.9"S, 63°38'57.8"W; 1120 m asl), province of Florida, department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia; adult female (CBF 3359) collected by A. Apaza, date unknown, at Bajo Hornuni (16°12'54.4"S, 67°53'09.8"W; 1935 m asl), Cotapata National Park, province of Nor Yungas, department of La Paz, Bolivia; adult female (CORBIDI 10377; Figs. 5C, 6A, 7C, 8C) collected by local people on January 5, 2007 at San Juan del Oro (14°16'56.11"S, 69°13'14.71"W; 1993 m asl), district of Yanahuaya, province of Sandia, department of Puno, Peru; two juvenile males (CORBIDI 2058, 2067; Figs. 5E–F, 6B–C, 7F, 8A), offspring of CORBIDI 10377, born in captivity on February 3, 2007; subadult female (MUBI 5675; Figs. 7D, 8D–E) collected by J.C. Chaparro and A.J. Quiroz on November 15, 2006 at Pacopacuni (13°52'29.7"S, 69°40'05.4"W; 898 m asl), province of Sandia, depart- ment of Puno, Peru; subadult male (MUBI 5677; Figs. 7E) collected by J.C. Chaparro and A.J. Quiroz on November 16, 2006 at Chuine (14°1'9.20"S, 69°43'35.20"W; 1500 m asl), province of Carabaya, department of Puno, Peru; subadult female (MUSM 25600; Figs. 5D, 6D) collected by D. Rodríguez on September 30, 2006 at San Gabán (13°32'55.77"S, 70°26'24.69"W; 891 m asl), province of Carabaya, department of Puno, Peru. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Bothrops monsignifer may be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following morphological features: canthorostrals, a feature absent in the rest of Bothrops, present in some specimens; prelacunal fused or partially fused with 2nd supralabial; internasals 1/1, sometimes separated by one scale; rostral trapezoidal; canthals 1/1, oval to rounded, with similar size or slightly larger than internasals; medial intercanthals 3–4; intersupraoculars 8–12; intercanthals and intersupraoculars keeled and frequently slightly keeled; supraoculars oval; suboculars 1–3; postoculars 2–3; loreal subtriangular; prefoveals 2–6; subfoveals absent; postfoveals 0–2; scales between suboculars and 4th supralabial 1–2; supralabials 7–8; infralabials 9–11; middorsal scales 23–25; ventrals in females 189–195, in males 182–190; subcaudals in females 48–58, in males 54–63; subcaudals divided, exceptionally some of them entire; dorsal blotches triangular or subtriangular dark brown, usually fused on the vertebral line; additional markings between the blotches absent or faint in females, present and conspicuous in males; conspicuous and dark postocular stripe, 2.5–3.0 scales width, starting posteriorly to the eye, encroaching 2–3 supralabials and one infralabial, not bordered dorsally by a pale band (a feature displayed by many bothropoid species). 
EtymologyNamed after the Latin (noun) by the union of “mons” (=montane) + “ignifer” (=flame, fire or flash), meaning fire mountain or volcano, in allusion to the location where the first Bolivian specimen was photographed (Refugio Los Volcanes, department of Santa Cruz, Bolivia). 
  • Koch, C. 2020. Schon die zweite neue Grubenotter aus Peru in diesem Jahr. Elaphe 2020 (1): 66-67
  • OLIVEIRA-DALLAND, LUIS G.; LAURA R.V. ALENCAR, LEANDRO R. TAMBOSI, PAOLA A. CARRASCO, RHETT M. RAUTSAW, JESUS SIGALA-RODRIGUEZ, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI & MARCIO MARTINS. 2022. Conservation gaps for Neotropical vipers: Mismatches between protected areas, species richness and evolutionary distinctiveness. Biological Conservation 275(109750). - get paper here
  • TIMMS, JUAN; JUAN C. CHAPARRO, PABLO J. VENEGAS, DAVID SALAZAR-VALENZUELA, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI, JAIRO CUEVAS, GERARDO LEYNAUD, PAOLA A. CARRASCO 2019. A new species of pitviper of the genus Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the Central Andes of South America. Zootaxa 4656 (1): 099–120 - get paper here
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