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Bothrops moojeni HOGE, 1966

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Brazilian Lancehead
Portuguese: Boipeva, Bopeva, Caiçaca, Caiçara, Caissaca, Jaracuçu, Jararaca, Jararaca-de-Vereda, Jararaca-do-Cerrado, Jararacão, Jararaquinha-do-Rabo-Branco 
SynonymBothrops moojeni HOGE 1966
Bothrops moojeni — CEI 1993
Bothrops moojeni — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 267
Bothrops moojeni — MONZEL & WÜSTER 2008
Bothrops moojeni — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops moojeni — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothrops moojeni — WALLACH et al. 2014: 118
Bothrops moojeni — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Piaui, Parana, Sao Paulo, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Goias, Maranhao, Bahia), E Bolivia,
E Paraguay (Canindeyu etc. [HR 30: 53]), Argentina (Misiones)

Type locality: Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.  
Reproductionovovivparous, facultative parthenogenesis (Cubides-Cubillos et al. 2020) 
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 23397. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Bothrops moojeni is distinguished from all congeners and from species of Bothrocophias and Bothriopsis by the following combination of characters: (1) lacunolabial present; (2) dorsal keels nontuberculate; (3) infralabials and gulars immaculate; (4) canthorostrals absent; (5) subcaudals divided; (6) ventrals 179–210 and subcaudals 44–70 (Campbell and Lamar 1989); (7) loreal subtriangular; (8) canthals narrow and separated by 4–7 scales; (9) internasals in contact (33%, 9) or separated by 1–2 scales; (10) postocular stripe absent or dark brown to gray and narrow: less than one temporal high; (11) dorsum gray to brown, pattern of subtriangular blotches; venter cream with very diffuse if any pigmentation except on edges; distinctive wavy occipital stripe extending onto neck (Harvey 2005: 19) 

Synonymy: May be conspecific with B. atrox.

Distribution: See map in Harvey 2005: 14 (Fig. 9). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019. 
EtymologyNamed after Dr. Joao Moojen de Oliveira (1904-1985), a Brazilian zoologist who collected extensively from the 1930s to the 1950s. 
  • Almeida-Santos, Selma Maria; Verônica Alberto Barros, Claudio Augusto Rojas, Letícia Ruiz Sueiro, Roberto Harutomi Corrêa Nomura 2017. Reproductive Biology of the Brazilian Lancehead, Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes, Viperidae), from the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. South American J. Herp. 12 (2): 174-181. - get paper here
  • Andrade D. V.; Abe A. S. 2000. Water collection by the body in a viperid snake, Bothrops moojeni. Amphibia-Reptilia 21 (4): 485-492 - get paper here
  • Andrade, D.V., A.S. Abe & M.C. dos Santos 1996. Is the Venom Related to Diet and Tail Color During Bothrops moojeni Ontogeny? Journal of Herpetology 30 (2): 285-288. - get paper here
  • Araújo dos Santos, Cirley Gomes; Rinneu Elias Borges, Marcelino Benvindo Souza, Rhayane Alves Assis, Josilene Maria Souza, Lia Raquel de Souza Santos 2020. First predation record by Bothrops moojeni (Squamata, Serpentes, Viperidae) on Physalaemus nattereri (Anura, Leptodactylidae) in the Cerrado, Central Brazil. Herpetology Notes 13: 781-782 - get paper here
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Betzel, R.L., Bernardo, L.R. & Silva-Soares, T. 2018. Bothrops moojeni (Caicaca; Brazilian Lancehead) Diet. Herpetological Review 49 (1): 124-125. - get paper here
  • Buongermini P., Emilio;Waller, Tomas 1999. Geographic distribution. Bothrops moojeni. Herpetological Review 30 (1): 53 - get paper here
  • Cacciali, Pier; Norman J. Scott, Aida Luz Aquino Ortíz, Lee A. Fitzgerald, and Paul Smith 2016. The Reptiles of Paraguay: Literature, Distribution, and an Annotated Taxonomic Checklist. SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE MUSEUM OF SOUTHWESTERN BIOLOGY, NUMBER 11: 1–373 - get paper here
  • Camera, Bruno Felipe, Dionei José Da Silva, Manoel Dos Santos Filho, Vitor A. Campos and Gustavo Rodrigues Canale. 2014. Bothrops moojeni (Brazilian lancehead) diet. Herpetological Review 45 (4): 705 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Cubides-Cubillos, S. D., Patané, J. S., da Silva, K. M. P., Almeida-Santos, S. M., Polydoro, D. S., Galassi, G. G., ... & Silva, M. J. D. J. 2020. Evidence of facultative parthenogenesis in three Neotropical pitviper species of the Bothrops atrox group. PeerJ 8, e10097 - get paper here
  • De Moura, Mario Ribeiro, Vitor Dias Fernandes, João Victor de Andrade Lacerda, Diego José Santana, Jussara Santos Dayrell, Luiz Henrique Rocha Lima and Renato Neves Feio. 2010. Bothrops moojeni: Diet. Herpetological Review 41 (3): 362 - get paper here
  • Dutra, N.C.L.; Telles, M.P.C.; Dutra, D.L. & Silva Júnior, N.J. 2008. Genetic diversity in populations of the viper Bothrops moojeni Hoge, 1966 in Central Brazil using RAPD markers. Genetics and Molecular Research 7 (3): 603-613 - get paper here
  • D’AMÉLIO, FERNANDA; HUGO VIGERELLI, ÁLVARO ROSSAN DE BRANDÃO PRIETO DA SILVA, & IRINA KERKIS 2021. Bothrops moojeni venom and its components–an overview. Journal of Venom Research 11: 26–33. - get paper here
  • Fabrício-Neto, Ailton; Rodrigo Samuel Bueno Gavira, and Denis Vieira Andrade 2016. Keratophagy in captive Bothrops moojeni (Serpentes: Viperidae). Phyllomedusa 15 (2): 201-202 - get paper here
  • FENWICK, ALLYSON M.; RONALD L. GUTBERLET JR, JENNAFER A. EVANS, CHRISTOPHER L. PARKINSON 2009. Morphological and molecular evidence for phylogeny and classification of South American pitvipers, genera Bothrops, Bothriopsis, and Bothrocophias (Serpentes: Viperidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156 (3): 617-640 - get paper here
  • Ferraz, D; Andrade, M S; De França, D P F & Ramalho, W P; 2019. Bothrops moojeni (Caiçaca, Brazilian Lancehead) Habitat. Herpetological Review 50 (1): 150 - get paper here
  • Ferreto Fiorillo, Bruno; Alexandro Marques Tozetti, Marcio Martins 2020. Habitat use by five species of sympatric pitvipers (Bothrops, Crotalus) in a Brazilian savannah. Herpetology Notes 13: 951-960 - get paper here
  • Fiorillo, B. F., Maciel, J. H., & Martins, M. 2021. Composition and natural history of a snake community from the southern Cerrado, southeastern Brazil. ZooKeys 1056: 95-147 - get paper here
  • Fiorillo, B. F., Nali, R. C. & Prado, C. P. A. 2012. Bothrops moojeni (Brazilian lancehead) diet. Herpetological Review 43: 656 - get paper here
  • Franca, F.G.R.; Daniel O. Mesquita, Cristiano C. Nogueira, and Alexandre F. B. Araújo 2008. Phylogeny and Ecology Determine Morphological Structure in a Snake Assemblage in the Central Brazilian Cerrado. Copeia 2008 (1): 23-38 - get paper here
  • Freitas, Marco Antonio de; Guarino R. Colli, Omar Machado Entiauspe-Neto, Luiz Trinchão, Daniel Araújo, Tiago de Oliveira Lima, Daniella Pereira Fagundes de França, Renato Gaiga, Pedro Dias 2016. Snakes of Cerrado localities in western Bahia, Brazil. Check List 12 (3): 1896 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Guerra, V., Ramalho, W. P., Machado, I. F., & Brandão, R. A. 2022. Herpetofauna of the Serra do Tombador Nature Reserve, State of Goiás, Central Brazil. Arquivos de Zoologia, 53(3), 33-51 - get paper here
  • Hamdan, B. & R. M. Lira-da-Silva 2012. The snakes of Bahia State, northeastern Brazil: species richness, composition and biogeographical notes. Salamandra 48 (1): 31-50 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M.B.; et al. 2005. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia. II. The pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 74 (1): 1-38. - get paper here
  • Hoge, A.R. 1966. Preliminary account on Neotropical Crotalinae (Serpentes: Viperidae). Mem. Inst. Butantan 32 [1965]: 109-184 - get paper here
  • Jansen, Martin 2008. Die Lanzenottern der Gattung Bothrops in Bolivien. Draco 8 (33): 50-56 - get paper here
  • MacLean, W. P. 1968. A case of intersexuality in Bothrops moojeni Hoge. Copeia 1968 (1): 170 - get paper here
  • Madella-Auricchio, Cláudia Renata; Paulo Auricchio Enio Saraiva Soares 2017. Reptile species composition in the Middle Gurguéia and comparison with inventories in the eastern Parnaíba River Basin, State of Piauí, Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 57(28): 375-386, - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Monzel, Markus 2008. Bissunfälle durch Lanzenottern – Gifte, Epidemiologie und Schlangenbiss-Management. Draco 8 (33): 57-65 - get paper here
  • Monzel, Markus & Wolfgang Wüster 2008. Neotropische Grubenottern – Evolution, Biogeographie und Ökologie. Draco 8 (33): 4-27 - get paper here
  • Moura, Mário Ribeiro; Leandro Braga Godinho and Renato Neves Feio. 2012. Bothrops moojeni (Squamata, Viperidae) predation on Hypsiboa crepitans (Anura: Hylidae) in southeastern Brazil. Herpetology Notes 6: 247-248
  • Neves MO, Yves A, Pereira EA, Alves L, Vasques JB, Coelho JFT, Silva PS 2019. Herpetofauna in a highly endangered area: the Triângulo Mineiro region, in Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Herpetozoa 32: 113-123 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, C., R.J. Sawaya & M. Martins 2003. Ecology of the Pitviper, Bothrops moojeni, in the Brazilian Cerrado Journal of Herpetology 37 (4): 653-659. - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pontes, M R; Morais, D H & Da Silva, R J 2018. Bothrops moojeni (Brazilian Lancehead) Diet. Herpetological Review 49 (2): 335 - get paper here
  • Pontes-Nogueira, M., Martins, M., Alencar, L. R., & Sawaya, R. J. 2021. The role of vicariance and dispersal on the temporal range dynamics of forest vipers in the Neotropical region. PLOS ONE, 16(9), e0257519 - get paper here
  • Pyron, R. Alexander; Catriona R. Hendry, Vincent M. Chou, Emily M. Lemmon, Alan R. Lemmon, Frank T. Burbrink 2014. Effectiveness of phylogenomic data and coalescent species-tree methods for resolving difficult nodes in the phylogeny of advanced snakes (Serpentes: Caenophidia). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 81: 221-231, DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2014.08.023 - get paper here
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  • Ramalho, Werther Pereira; Vinícius Guerra Batista; Luciano Roberto Passos Lozi 2014. Anfíbios e répteis do médio rio Aporé, estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Goiás, Brasil. Neotropical Biology and Conservation 9 (3): 147-160; doi: 10.4013/nbc.2014.93.04 - get paper here
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  • Wüster, Wolfgang; Pierini, Stephen; Puorto, Giuseppe 1994. Bothrops moojeni (Brazilian lancehead). Brazil: Mato Grosso. Herpetological Review 25 (2): 76 - get paper here
  • Zacariotti, Rogério L.; Taís F. Zimak and Rodrigo del Rio do Valle 2011. Bothrops moojeni (Brazilian lancehead): Mating. Herpetological Bulletin (115) - get paper here
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