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Bothrops neuwiedi WAGLER, 1824

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Jararaca Pintada
G: Lanzenotter
Portuguese: Boca-de-Sapo, Bocuda, Jararaca, Jararaca-Cruzeira, Jararaca-do-Rabo-Branco, Jararaca-Pintada, Jararaca-Pintada-Rabo-de-Osso, Malha-de-Sapo, Rabo-de-Osso, Tire-Peia 
SynonymBothrops neuwiedi WAGLER 1824: 56
Bothrops leucurus WAGLER 1824: 57
Bothrops urutu LACERDA 1884
Bothrops atrox meridionalis MÜLLER 1885: 699
Lachesis neuwiedi — BOULENGER 1896
Bothrops neuwiedi goyazensis AMARAL 1925: 58
Bothrops neuwiedi paranaensis AMARAL 1925: 61
Bothrops neuwiedi neuwiedi — AMARAL 1925: 57
Bothrops neuwiedii minasensis AMARAL 1925: 59
Bothrops neuwiedi meridionalis AMARAL 1930
Bothrops neuwiedi fluminensis AMARAL 1932: 97
Bothrops neuwiedii fluminensis AMARAL 1933: 97 [1932]
Bothrops neuwiedi urutu — AMARAL 1937: 160
Bothrops neuwiedi meridionalis — HOGE 1966: 128
Bothrops neuwiedi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 49
Bothrops neuwiedi meridionalis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 50
Bothrops neuwiedi neuwiedi — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 50
Bothrops neuwiedi urutu — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 50
Bothrops neuwiedi goyazensis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 50
Bothrops neuwiedi — WELCH 1994: 35
Bothrops neuwiedi — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 267
Bothrops neuwiedi — DA SILVA & RODRIGUES 2008
Bothropoides neuwiedi — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops neuwiedi — LINARES & ETEROVICK 2013
Bothrops neuwiedi — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothropoides neuwiedi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 114
Bothrops neuwiedi — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul, from Santa Catarina, northeastward to Bahia, Ceará, Paraíba), Argentina (Jujuy, Salta, Formosa, Chaco, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, Córdoba, La Rioja, San Juan, San Luis, La Pampa, Mendoza, Santa Fe, Entre Rios, Corrientes, Misiones)

Subspecies now synonymized:

neuwiedi: Brazil (S Bahia); Type locality: Estado da Bahía, Brazil.

goyazensis: Brazil (Goia); Type locality: Ipamery, Goiás, Brazil.

meridionalis: Brazil (Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara, Espirito Santo); Type locality: Andarai, Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

paranaensis: Brazil (Parana)

urutu: Brazil (SC Minas Gerais, N Sao Paulo); Type locality: “Minas Gerais”.  
TypesLectotype: ZSM 2348/0, male
Lectotype: NMBA 2564 [urutu] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Bothropoides differ from other South American pitvipers in 38 mitochondrial characters (Table 4 in FENWICK et al. 2009). External characters overlap with other South American genera, with no unique synapomorphies in scalation. Distribution in eastern South America, combined with terrestrial habitat in grasslands or broad-leaf forests (Bothropoides neuwiedi group), or semiarboreal habitat in Atlantic forests (B. jararaca group), distinguishes this genus from others (see Table 4). Bothropoides has fewer interrictals (21– 34) than the other South American genera (24–40), and some individuals have high numbers of supralabials (7–11, also seen in Rhinocerophis; all other South American genera have 7 or 8 supralabials). Bothropoides differs from Bothrops and Bothriopsis in having most species with the prelacunal separate from the second supralabial (B. jararaca, B. alcatraz, and B. insularis have the prelacunal fused to the second supralabial). Some specimens have both divided and entire subcaudals, a state also seen in Bothriopsis. Bothropoides differs from Bothriopsis in the lack of a prehensile tail and lack of green coloration. It differs from Bothrocophias in the lack of white spots on the gular scales, and the lack of tuberculate keels on posterior dorsal scales. Bothropoides differs from some Rhinocerophis (R. alternatus, R. cotiara, R. fonsecai, and R. jonathani) in the absence of distinctive back bars on the underside of the head (FENWICK et al. 2009).

Diagnosis (species): More than half or all the supralabials of intense dark pigmentation with large round white spots. Dorsolateral blotches of well-defined contour, still more enhanced by white margins that detach them from the ground coloration. Prolonged occipital blotches, usually surpassing the quadrate-mandibular articulation and fusing to the first pair of dorsolateral blotches of the trunk forming the somewhat short postcephalic stripes. Head without melanism. Postocular stripe very marked and keels always with the same coloration of the dorsal scales. Blotches between two consecutive dorsolateral blotches are present. Two arrays of scales between the subocular and the 4th supralabial. Dorsolateral blotches of the trunk with triangular or semi-lunar format from 17 to 27 (modes 19 and 21).

See another diagnosis in Harvey 2005: 20. 

Distribution: not in Uruguay fide CARREIRA et al. (2005); only the former subspecies B. (n.) pubescens occurs in Uruguay. Not in Bolivia, nor in Peru; specimens reported from Bolivia or Peru are either B. mattogrossensis or B. pauloensis, based on the new definition of Bothropoides neuwiedi by Silva and Rodrigues (2008). Not in Paraguay; Paraguayan populations were split into B. matogrossensis, pauloensis, and B. diporus (Cacciali et al. 2016). See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Synonymy after  DA SILVA & RODRIGUES 2008 who elevated a number of subspecies to full species status and synonymized the remainder (neuwiedi, urutu, meridionalis, goyazensis, paranaensis) with B. neuwiedi. Other synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970, who mention 12 subspecies, and CEI 1993.

Type species: Bothrops neuwiedi WAGLER 1824 is the type species of the genus Bothropoides FENWICK et al. 2009. Note, however, that Bothropoides has been synonymized with Bothrops by CARRASCO et al. 2012. 
EtymologyNamed after Maximilian Alexander Philip, Prince zu Wied-Neuwied (1782-1867), was an aristocratic explorer. After studying natural history at Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, he entered the Prussian army (1802) and later extensively travelled the Americas.

The genus name is derived from the Greek bothros, referring to the facial pit, and also referring to the currently named genus Bothrops. The term oides means ‘similar to’ or ‘having the nature of ’, thereby recognizing the affinity of these species with other terrestrial South American pitvipers. Names ending in this suffix are masculine. 
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