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Bothrops oligobalius DAL VECHIO, PRATES, GRAZZIOTIN, GRABOSKI & RODRIGUES, 2021

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymBothrops oligobalius DAL VECHIO, PRATES, GRAZZIOTIN, GRABOSKI & RODRIGUES 2021
Bothrops neglecta — AMARAL 1923: 100–102; in part
Bothrops neglecta — HOGE & LANCINI 1962: 16
Bothrops brazili — HOGE 1962: 63
Bothrops neglecta — ROZE 1966: 286
Bothrops brazili — HOGE et al. 1972: 231; in part
Bothrops brazili — CUNHA & NASCIMENTO 1975: 12 in part
Bothrops brazili — GASC & RODRIGUES 1980: 591
Bothrops brazili — CHIPPAUX 1986: 50
Bothrops brazili — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 1989
Bothrops brazili — CAMPBELL & LAMAR 2004
Bothrops brazili ‘northern clade’ — DAL VECHIO et al. 2020 
DistributionBrazil (Amapá)

Type locality: terra firme (non-flooded) Amazonian lowland forests, at the Lourenço municipality (00°41ʹ48.2”S, 57°42ʹ45.1”W), state of Amapá, Brazil  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MZUSP 23282 (MTR 13844), A male, collected by Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues and Antoine Fouquet on 22 April 2007, under a leaf of Cecropia sp. (Figure 3). ZooBank ID number: 8E9124E2-94E6-434B-B086 -5043CE02893C
Paratypes (n=10): MNRJ 10050–51 (females) from São Gabriel da Cachoeira municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil; MPEG 3274 (female) from Almeirim municipality, state of Pará; MZUSP 11719 (male) from Rio Maracá, Mazagão municipality, state of Amapá; Colombia: ICN 2155 (male) from Puerto Santander, Caquetá river, Araracuara, Amazonas; ICN 10000 (female), ICN 10001–02 (male) from Puré river, Letícia, Amazonas (Figure 5); ICN 8176 (female) from Caparú, Taraira lake, Vaupés; ICN 10404 (female) from Mosiro Itajura biological research, Taraira lake, Vaupés. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: (1) A robust body species, SVL = 245–805 mm, (2) short tail, TL = 35–113 mm; (3) 23–27 dorsals on the first third of the body; (4) 23–25 dorsals at midbody; (5) 18–21 dorsals on the last third of the body; (6) 156–164 ventrals in females (median = 160) and 154–159 in males (median = 156); (7) anal scale not divided; (8) 42–48 paired subcaudals in females (median = 44.5) and 47–52 in males (median = 48.8); (9) 9–13 lateral trapezoidal marks in each side (median = 11,01 and 11,7 on the right and left side, respectively); (10) post- orbital stripe absent or poorly marked; (11) eight supralabials; (12) 10–12 infralabials; (13) second supralabial fused to the prelacunal; (14) belly checkered; (15) absence of vertebral stripe.

Comparisons: Comparisons for meristic and qualitative characters are presented in Table 1. Attributes from other species are presented in parenthesis. The new species can be promptly assigned to the jararacussu group due its morphological similarities with B. brazili, with whom the
Like other members in the jararacussu group, the new species presents the second labial scale fused to the prelacunal (separate in the alternatus and neuwiedi groups), postorbital stripe absent or faint (present in the alternatus, neuwiedi, atrox and jararaca groups), dorsal skin of the head with homogeneous colouration (blotched or patterned in the alternatus and neuwiedi groups and generally in the atrox group as well), stout and cylindrical bodies and terrestrial habit (slender, laterally com- pressed and arboreal habit in the taeniatus group), reddish and greyish background skin colouration and reddish eye (greenish background colour in the taeniatus group, skin generally brownish in the atrox, jararaca, alternatus and neuwiedi groups), eight supralabials and lower number of ventrals (generally 7 supralabials and higher number of ventrals in atrox group). Assignment of B. oligobalius to the jararacussu group is further supported by our molecular approach (Figure 1).
Within the jararacussu species group, Bothrops oligobalius can be distinguished from B. jararacussu and B. pirajai by the absence or a faint postorbital stripe (present in both species), greyish and reddish background skin colouration (yellowish or brownish back- ground with black trapezoidal marks in both species), reddish eye (yellowish or brownish in both species). The number of ventrals in B. oligobalius (156–164 in females, 154–159 in males) distinguishes it from B. muriciensis (151–155 in females, 148–150 in males) and B. jararacussu (170–186 in females, 166–181 in males) (Table 1). The phylogenetic position of B. oligobalius sister to a clade assembling B. jararacussu, B. pirajai and B. muriciensis (which correspond to the Atlantic Forest lineage in the jararacussu group) is further supported by high genetic divergence and highly disjunct distributions (Figure 1).
Bothrops oligobalius is similar to B. brazili in background skin colouration and general external morphology features. However, the species can be promptly distin- guished from B. brazili due to a smaller number of lateral trapezoidal marks (9–13; mean = 11.01 and 11.7 on the right and left side, respectively; in B. brazili, 13–21 mean = 17.1 and 16.3 on the right and left side, respectively) and absence of a vertebral stripe (present in B. brazili) (Table 1, Figures 2, Figures 3, Figures 5 and Figures 8). Moreover, the low number of ventrals (156–164 in females and 154–159 in males), and subcaudals 42–48 in females and 47–52 in males in B. oligobalius also distinguish it from B. brazili (ventrals 174–186 in females and 175–184 in males, and subcaudals 45–56 in females and 54–61 in males) (Table 1). Molecular analysis recovered these two species as non-sister lineage, with pronounced genetic dis- tances between them. Moreover, the new species occurs north of the Amazon River, while B. brazili is restricted to areas south of the river, with no reported sympatry (Figures 6, Figures 8).
Lastly, the new species is distinguished from B. sanctaecrucis, a poorly known member of the jararacussu group from Bolivia, by the lower number of ventrals and caudals (171–185 and 56–57 respectively in B. sanctaecrucis), lower number of lateral trapezoidal marks (18–21), and greyish to reddish background skin colouration (brownish to yellowish). 
CommentOnly limited data and bibliography provided as authors did not provide them upon request.

Distribution: see map in Del Vechio et al. 2021: 2426 (Fig. 6). 
EtymologyThe specific name derives from the Greek oligos (few) and balios (spotted, dappled). The name is a reference to the smaller number of lateral trapezoidal marks on the body compared to Bothrops brazili, a name now restricted to the populations south of the Amazon River (see below). 
References
  • Dal Vechio, Francisco; Ivan Prates, Felipe G. Grazziotin, Roberta Graboski & Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues 2020. Molecular and phenotypic data reveal a new Amazonian species of pit vipers (Serpentes: Viperidae: Bothrops). Journal of Natural History, 54:37-38, 2415-2437, - get paper here
 
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