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Bothrops oligolepis (WERNER, 1901)

IUCN Red List - Bothrops oligolepis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Inca Forest Pit Viper (oligolepis)
Peru Forest Pit Viper (peruviana) 
SynonymLachesis bilineatus var. oligolepis WERNER 1901: 13
Lachesis peruvianus BOULENGER 1903: 354
Lachesis peruvianus — WERNER 1927: 256
Bothrops peruviana — AMARAL 1929: 240
Bothrops peruvianus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 53
Bothrops oligolepis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 53
Bothriechis oligolepis — SCHÄTTI, KRAMER & TOUZET 1990: 877
Bothriopsis oligolepis — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothriopsis peruviana — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothriopsis peruviana — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 249
Bothriopsis oligolepis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 249
Bothrops oligolepis— WÜSTER et al. 2002
Bothriopsis oligolepis — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops oligolepis — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothriopsis oligolepis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 110 
DistributionPeru (eastern versant of the Andes, Cordillera Central), Bolivia (eastern versant of the Andes); Type locality: Bolivia

peruviana: SE Peru (Cordillera de Carabaya, N Puno); Type locality: La Oroya and Carabaya, southeastern Peru  
TypesHolotype: MTD (= MTKD) 1714 M. Dr.” (presumably Konigl. Zoologisches Museum Dresden), as cited in the original description. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Bothriopsis oligolepis is distinguished from all congeners and from species of Bothrocophias and Bothrops by the following combination of characters: (1) lacunolabial present; (2) dorsal keels nontuberculate; (3) infralabials and gulars immaculate in adults; (4) canthorostrals absent; (5) subcaudals divided or with few entire subcaudals anteriorly; (6) ventrals 189–193 and subcaudals 54–65 (Campbell and Lamar, 1989, report 188–196 ventrals and 53–66 subcaudals for this species); (7) loreal subtriangular; (8) canthals narrow; (9) internasals in contact; (10) postocular stripe black and 2–3 temporals high; (11) dorsum bright green with black and yellow bands, each about one dorsal long; dorsal surface of head green with few black and yellow blotches (Harvey 2005: 6). 

Bothrops albocarinatus is considered as a subspecies of Bothriechis (Bothrops) oligolepis by SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993. The same authors consider Bothriechis oligolepis as a senior synonym of Lachesis peruvianus Boulenger 1903, a notion that was confirmed by HARVEY et al. (2005).

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Amaral,A. do 1926. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 16: 320, 322
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1903. Descriptions of new snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12: 350-354 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1912. Descriptions of new reptiles from the Andes of South America, preserved in the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 10: 420-424 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M.B.; et al. 2005. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia. II. The pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 74 (1): 1-38. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1993. Ecuadorianische Grubenottern der Gattungen Bothriechis, Bothrops und Porthidium (Serpentes: Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100 (2): 235-278 - get paper here
  • Schätti, Beat; Kramer, Eugen;Touzet, Jean-Marc 1990. Systematic remarks on a rare crotalid snake from Ecuador, Bothriechis albocarinata (Shreve), with some comments on the generic arrangement of arboreal neotropical pitvipers. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 97 (4): 877-885 - get paper here
  • TIMMS, JUAN; JUAN C. CHAPARRO, PABLO J. VENEGAS, DAVID SALAZAR-VALENZUELA, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI, JAIRO CUEVAS, GERARDO LEYNAUD, PAOLA A. CARRASCO 2019. A new species of pitviper of the genus Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the Central Andes of South America. Zootaxa 4656 (1): 099–120 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1927. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Wiener naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum (III. Teil). Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 143 [135?]: 243-257 [1926] - get paper here
  • Werner, FRANZ 1901. Reptilien und Batrachier aus Peru und Bolivien. Abhandl. Ber. Zool. Anthrop. Mus. Dresden, 9 (2): 1-14 [1900] - get paper here
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