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Bothrops oligolepis (WERNER, 1901)

IUCN Red List - Bothrops oligolepis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Inca Forest Pit Viper (oligolepis)
E: Peru Forest Pit Viper (peruviana) 
SynonymLachesis bilineatus var. oligolepis WERNER 1901: 13
Lachesis peruvianus BOULENGER 1903: 354
Lachesis peruvianus — WERNER 1927: 256
Bothrops peruviana — AMARAL 1929: 240
Bothrops peruvianus — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 53
Bothrops oligolepis — PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970: 53
Bothriechis oligolepis — SCHÄTTI, KRAMER & TOUZET 1990: 877
Bothriopsis oligolepis — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothriopsis peruviana — WELCH 1994: 31
Bothriopsis peruviana — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 249
Bothriopsis oligolepis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 249
Bothrops oligolepis— WÜSTER et al. 2002
Bothriopsis oligolepis — FENWICK et al. 2009
Bothrops oligolepis — CARRASCO et al. 2012
Bothriopsis oligolepis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 110 
DistributionPeru (eastern versant of the Andes, Cordillera Central), Bolivia (eastern versant of the Andes); Type locality: Bolivia

peruviana: SE Peru (Cordillera de Carabaya, N Puno); Type locality: La Oroya and Carabaya, southeastern Peru  
TypesHolotype: MTD (= MTKD) 1714 M. Dr.” (presumably Konigl. Zoologisches Museum Dresden), as cited in the original description. 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Bothriopsis oligolepis is distinguished from all congeners and from species of Bothrocophias and Bothrops by the following combination of characters: (1) lacunolabial present; (2) dorsal keels nontuberculate; (3) infralabials and gulars immaculate in adults; (4) canthorostrals absent; (5) subcaudals divided or with few entire subcaudals anteriorly; (6) ventrals 189–193 and subcaudals 54–65 (Campbell and Lamar, 1989, report 188–196 ventrals and 53–66 subcaudals for this species); (7) loreal subtriangular; (8) canthals narrow; (9) internasals in contact; (10) postocular stripe black and 2–3 temporals high; (11) dorsum bright green with black and yellow bands, each about one dorsal long; dorsal surface of head green with few black and yellow blotches (Harvey 2005: 6). 

Bothrops albocarinatus is considered as a subspecies of Bothriechis (Bothrops) oligolepis by SCHÄTTI & KRAMER 1993. The same authors consider Bothriechis oligolepis as a senior synonym of Lachesis peruvianus Boulenger 1903, a notion that was confirmed by HARVEY et al. (2005).

Synonymy partly after PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970.

Habitat: fully arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
  • Amaral,A. do 1926. Annals of the Carnegie Museum 16: 320, 322
  • Amaral,A. do 1930. Estudos sobre ophidios neotropicos XVIII. Lista remissiva dos ophidios da região neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 4: 126-271 [1929] - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1903. Descriptions of new snakes in the collection of the British Museum. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 12: 350-354 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1912. Descriptions of new reptiles from the Andes of South America, preserved in the British Museum. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (8) 10: 420-424 - get paper here
  • Campbell, J.A. & Lamar, W.W. 1989. The Venomous Reptiles of Latin America. Comstock Publishing/Cornell University Press, Ithaca
  • Carrasco, P.A., C.I. Mattoni, G.C. Leynaud, and G.J. Scrocchi. 2012. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of South American bothropoid pitvipers (Serpentes, Viperidae). Zoologica Scripta 41: 109-124 - get paper here
  • CATENAZZI, A., LEHR, E. & VON MAY, R. 2013. The amphibians and reptiles of Manu National Park and its buffer zone, Amazon basin and eastern slopes of the Andes, Peru. Biota Neotropica 13 (4): 269-283
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Harvey, M.B.; et al. 2005. Revision of the venomous snakes of Bolivia. II. The pitvipers (Serpentes: Viperidae). Annals of the Carnegie Museum 74 (1): 1-38. - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Schätti B; Kramer E 1993. Ecuadorianische Grubenottern der Gattungen Bothriechis, Bothrops und Porthidium (Serpentes: Viperidae). Revue Suisse de Zoologie 100 (2): 235-278 - get paper here
  • Schätti, Beat; Kramer, Eugen;Touzet, Jean-Marc 1990. Systematic remarks on a rare crotalid snake from Ecuador, Bothriechis albocarinata (Shreve), with some comments on the generic arrangement of arboreal neotropical pitvipers. Revue Suisse de Zoologie 97 (4): 877-885 - get paper here
  • TIMMS, JUAN; JUAN C. CHAPARRO, PABLO J. VENEGAS, DAVID SALAZAR-VALENZUELA, GUSTAVO SCROCCHI, JAIRO CUEVAS, GERARDO LEYNAUD, PAOLA A. CARRASCO 2019. A new species of pitviper of the genus Bothrops (Serpentes: Viperidae: Crotalinae) from the Central Andes of South America. Zootaxa 4656 (1): 099–120 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werner, F. 1927. Neue oder wenig bekannte Schlangen aus dem Wiener naturhistorischen Staatsmuseum (III. Teil). Sitzungsb. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math. Naturwiss. Kl. 143 [135?]: 243-257 [1926] - get paper here
  • Werner, FRANZ 1901. Reptilien und Batrachier aus Peru und Bolivien. Abhandl. Ber. Zool. Anthrop. Mus. Dresden, 9 (2): 1-14 [1900] - get paper here
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