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Bradypodion nemorale RAW, 1978

IUCN Red List - Bradypodion nemorale - Least Concern, LR

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Higher TaxaChamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Qudeni Dwarf Chameleon, Zululand Dwarf Chameleon
E: Nkandla Dwarf Chameleon [nkandlae] 
SynonymBradypodion nemorale RAW 1978
Bradypodion nemorale — KLAVER & BÖHME 1997
Bradypodion nemorale — NECAS 1999: 275
Bradypodion nkandlae RAW & BROTHERS 2008
Bradypodion nemorale RAW 1978 (part.)
Bradypodion nemorale — TILBURY 2010: 276 
DistributionRepublic of South Africa (Nkanala Forest, Qudeni Forest, Zululand)

Type locality: Qudeni forest, Zululand, S. Africa

nkandlae: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal); Type locality: Nkandla Forest, Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.  
TypesHolotype: NMSA (also as NMP or NM) 1474 (Natal Museum collection, Pietermaritzburg)
Holotype: private collection, LRG Raw number LR900 collected by FL Farquharson, MN Harris and LRG Raw on 3 April 1977. This is presumably an immature specimen but no obviously adult specimens of this taxon have yet been collected [nkandlae] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A medium-sized dwarf chameleon. Casque strongly raised. Subocular tubercle not or only slightly raised. Cranial crests developed and distinct but not swollen or horn-coloured. Gular lobes longer than broad. Throat region pigmented with white gular grooves. Flanks without longitudinal grooves. Dorsal crest distinct, continuing on tail. 
CommentDistribution: For a map see TOLLEY et al. (2004).

Conservation: “Near threatened” (HILTON-TAYLOR 2000).

Synonymy: Bradypodion nkandlae RAW & BROTHERS 2008 has been synonymized with B. nemorale by TILBURY & TOLLEY 2009. B. nemorale is relatively widely spread and its precise species boundaries remain unclear, hence it is impossible to justify whether nkandlae or other populations deserve species status without more data (K. Tolley, pers. comm., 29 Feb 2020). 
EtymologyThis is derived from the Latin, nemoralis, meaning living in or frequenting groves or woods, and refers to the preferred forest habitat of the species.

Bradypodion nkandlae was named after the Latinised genitive noun “of Nkandla”, referring to the Nkandla Forest. 
  • Bates, M.F.; Branch, W.R., Bauer, A.M.; Burger, M., Marais, J.; Alexander, G.J. & de Villliers, M.S. (eds.) 2014. Atlas and Red List of the Reptiles of South Africa, Lesotho, and Swaziland. Suricata 1. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria, 512 pp.
  • Glaw, F. 2015. Taxonomic checklist of chameleons (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). [type catalogue] Vertebrate Zoology 65 (2): 167–246 - get paper here
  • Hilton-Taylor, C. 2000. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
  • Necas, Petr 1999. Chameleons - Nature's Hidden Jewels. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt; 348 pp.; ISBN 3-930612-04-6 (Europe)<br />ISBN 1-57524-137-4 (USA, Canada)
  • Raw, L. & Brothers, D.J. 2008. Redescription of the South African dwarf chameleon, Bradypodion nemorale Raw 1978 (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae), and description of two new species. ZooNova 1 (1): 1-7 - get paper here
  • Raw, L. R. G. 1978. A further new dwarf chameleon from Natal, South Africa (Sauria: Chamaeleonidae). Durban Mus. Novit. 11(15): 265-269.
  • Schmidt, W.; Tamm, K. & Wallikewitz, E. 2010. Chamäleons - Drachen unserer Zeit. Natur und Tier Verlag, 328 pp. [review in Reptilia 101: 64, 2013] - get paper here
  • Stuart-Fox, D. & Moussalli, A. 2007. Sex-specific ecomorphological variation and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion spp.). J. evol. Biol. 20: 1073-1081 - get paper here
  • Stuart-Fox, D.; Moussalli, A. & Whiting, M.J. 2007. Natural Selection on Social Signals: Signal Efficacy and the Evolution of Chameleon Display Coloration. American Naturalist 170 (6): 916-930 - get paper here
  • Tilbury, C. 2010. Chameleons of Africa: An Atlas, Including the Chameleons of Europe, the Middle East and Asia. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt M., 831 pp.
  • TILBURY, COLIN R. & KRYSTAL A. TOLLEY 2009. A new species of dwarf chameleon (Sauria; Chamaeleonidae, Bradypodion Fitzinger) from KwaZulu Natal South Africa with notes on recent climatic shifts and their influence on speciation in the genus. Zootaxa 2226: 43-57 - get paper here
  • Tolley, K. & Burger, M. 2007. Chameleons of Southern Africa. Struik, Cape Town,100 pp.
  • Tolley, Krystal A.; Colin R. Tilbury, William R. Branch and Conrad A. Matthee 2004. Phylogenetics of the southern African dwarf chameleons, Bradypodion (Squamata: Chamaeleonidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 30 (2): 354-365 - get paper here
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