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Bronchocela rayaensis GRISMER, WOOD, LEE, QUAH, ANUAR, NGADI & SITES, 2015

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Gunung Raya Green-crested Lizard 
SynonymBronchocela rayaensis GRISMER, WOOD, LEE, QUAH, ANUAR, NGADI & SITES 2015
Bronchocela cristatela — ZIMMERER 2004: 87
Bronchocela cristatella — MANTHEY 2008: 49
Bronchocela cristatella — LIM et al. 2009: 23
Bronchocela cristatella — GRISMER 2011: 143
Bronchocela rayaensis — GRISMER & QUAH 2019 
DistributionPeninsular Malaysia (Pulau Langkawi, Tuba Island)

Type locality: Gunung Raya, Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia (06°22.096 N; 99°49.004 E), 834 m elevation.  
Reproductionoviparous. The paratype (LRCUKM 0136) is a gravid female (SVL 85.0 mm) carrying two eggs. 
TypesHolotype: LSUHC 7535, adult male, collected on 18 August 2005 by L. Lee Grismer and Perry L. Wood Jr., at 2140 hrs Paratype. LRCUKM 0136 (=LSUHC 12061) collected on 2 May 2014 by Ehwan N. at 1000 hrs at 400 m a.s.l. from Gunung Raya, Pulau Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia (06°23.035 N; 99°47.443 E). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A small species reaching 85 mm SVL; Tympanum small (DT/DO 0.46–0.49); head squarish in lateral profile (HD/HL 0.49–0.56), relatively narrow (HW/HL 0.56–0.59); forelimbs relatively long (FLL/SVL 0.59); foot relatively short (FoL/HLL 0.37–0.38); hind limbs relatively long (HLL/SVL 0.91–0.99); 5–7 loreal scales; three postmentals; nuchal crest low, longer than diameter of orbit, spines lancolate; 67–71 midbody scales; no rows of paravertebral scales bearing keels pointing dorsoposteriorly; 5–7 rows of dorsal scales bearing keels pointing posteriorly; ventral scales less than five times the width of dorsal scales; 30 subdigital lamellae on the third finger; 31–33 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; third finger longer than fourth finger; fourth finger not longer than fifth toe; no white patch between tympanum and orbit; tympanum green in adults; no white or yellow supralabial stripe; no red gular patch; no white ventrolateral line on body; no postfemoral red line; and faint caudal bands. These characters are scored across all species in Tables 4 and 5 in GRISMER et al. 2015.

Comparisons. Bronchocela rayaensis sp. nov. can be differentiated from B. danieli (Tiwari & Biswas), B. smaragdina Günther, B. cristatella, B. hayeki (Müller), B. jubata Duméril & Bibron, B. orlovi Hallermann, and B. rubrigularis Hallermann by the tympanum being less than 50% of the diameter of the eye. Having a low nuchal crest separates it from B. celebesensis Gray, B. cristatella, B. hayeki (Müller), B. jubata, B. orlovi, B. rubrigularis and B. shenlong sp. nov. Having 67–71 midbody scale rows separates it from B. smaragdina, B. vietnamesnsis Hallermann & Orlov 2005, B. jubata, B. orlovi, B. rubrigularis, and B. shenlong sp. nov. Bronchocela rayaensis sp. nov. is also differentiated from various combinations of all other species on the basis of numerous color pattern characteristics (Tables 4,5).

Bronchocela rayaensis sp. nov. most closely resembles B. cristatella and B. shenlong sp. nov. from Peninsular Malaysia but can be differentiated further from them by its smaller maximum adult SVL (85 mm vs. 87–120 mm collectively for B. cristatella and B. shenlong); a relatively longer forelimb (FLL/SVL 0.59 vs. 0.51–0.59 collectively for B. cristatella and B. shenlong); the third finger being longer than the fourth; and very small nuchal spines. It can be further separated from B. cristatella by having more subdigital lamellae on the third toe (30 vs 24– 29) and having a green as opposed to a black tympanum. Bronchocela rayaensis sp. nov. can be further differentiated from B. shenlong sp. nov. by having a relatively shorter foot (FoL/HLL 0.37–0.38 vs. 0.39–0.41); fewer midbody scale rows (67–71 vs. 71–92); having paravertebral scales bearing posteriorly directed keels as opposed to lacking such scales; land lacking a white infralabial region and a red postfemoral stripe that extends onto the anterior portion of the tail. These character states are summarized in Table 5 (GRISMER et al. 2015). 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is derived from the Malay word raya meaning “great” and the Latin suffix - ensis meaning “originating in” and refers to this species discovery at the type locality on Gunung Raya. 
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; P.L. WOOD, JR., CHEOL HAENG LEE, EVAN S. H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, EHWAN NGADI & JACK W. SITES, JR. 2015. An integrative taxonomic review of the agamid genus Bronchocela (Kuhl, 1820) from Peninsular Malaysia with descriptions of new montane and insular endemics. Zootaxa 3948 (1): 001–023 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., ANCHELEE AOWPHOL, MICHAEL COTA, MATHEW L. MURDOCH, CÉSAR AGUILAR, & MARTA S. GRISMER 2016. Taxonomy, phylogeny, and distribution of Bronchocela rayaensis (Squamata: Agamidae) on the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Zootaxa 4092 (3): 414–420 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Lim, B.L., Noor, A.W.O., Chan, K.O., Belabut, D. & Norhayati, A. 2009. An updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi, Peninsular Malaysia. Malaysian Applied Biology, 39: 13–33 - get paper here
  • Manthey U 2008. Agamid lizards of Southern Asia, Draconinae 1. Terralog 7, 160 pp.
  • QUAH, EVAN S. H.; PERRY L. JR. WOOD, M.S. SHAHRUL ANUAR, MOHD ABDUL MUIN 2020. A new species of Cnemaspis Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia with an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Tuba Island. Zootaxa 4767 (1): 138–160 - get paper here
  • Zimmerer, J. 2004. Nature Guide, Langkawi. Sakti Mega Enterprise, Malaysia, 184 pp
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