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Bungarus candidus (LINNAEUS, 1758)

IUCN Red List - Bungarus candidus - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Blue Krait
G: Blauer Krait 
SynonymColuber candidus LINNAEUS 1758: 223
Bungarus candidus — CANTOR 1847
Bungarus semifasciatus BOIE 1827
Aspidoclonion semifasciatum — WAGLER 1828
Bungarus candidus var. semifasciata — WERNER 1900
Bungarus javanicus KOPSTEIN 1932 (fide SLOWINSKI 1994)
Bungarus candidus — SMITH 1943: 416
Bungarus candidus — WELCH 1994: 37
Bungarus javanicus — WELCH 1994: 39
Bungarus javanicus — KUCH 1996
Bungarus candidus — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 416
Bungarus candidus — COX et al. 1998: 30
Bungarus candidus — NGUYEN et al. 2009
Bungarus candidus — LIVIGNI 2013: 292
Bungarus candidus — WALLACH et al. 2014: 128
Bungarus candidus — CHEN et al. 2021 
DistributionCambodia, Laos (Vientiane, Champasak, Salavan),
Indonesia (Java, Sumatra, Bali, Sulawesi)
Malaysia (Malaya);
Thailand, Vietnam

Type locality: “Indiis” (in error)  
TypesHolotype: NRM (was ZIUS 89)
Holotype: RMNH [javanicus] 
CommentSynonymy: Xie et al. 2018 synonymized B. multicinctus with B. candidus. However, Chen et al. 2021 upheld multicinctus although they do call the three closely related species “the B. candidus/multicinctus/wanghaotingi complex”.

Similar species: B. candidus can be easily confused with juvenile Lycodon subcinctus or with L. stormi, which have alternating black and white bands too. Bungarus javanicus appears to be a melanistic form of Bungarus candidus (Slowinski 1994, Kuch & Mebs 2007).


DNA barcodes suggested multiple species within this species (Laopichienpong et al. 2016).

Distribution: The latest record of this species from Sulawesi is from MEYER 1887. DE LANG & VOGEL (2005) thus consider this species as doubtful for this island. Not in Singapore or not established there (Figueroa et al. 2023).

Genome (multicinctus): Liu et al. 2023. 
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