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Calamaria griswoldi LOVERIDGE, 1938

IUCN Red List - Calamaria griswoldi - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Calamariinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common Names 
SynonymCalamaria lumbricoidea griswoldi LOVERIDGE 1938
Calamaria vermiformis SMITH 1931: 27
Calamaria griswoldi — MARX & INGER 1955
Calamaria griswoldi — INGER & MARX 1965: 92
Calamaria vermiformis — TAYLOR 1965
Calamaria griswoldi — MANTHEY 1983
Calamaria griswoldi — INGER & VORIS 2001
Calamaria griswoldi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 137 
DistributionMalaysia (Borneo, Sabah, elevation up to 1800 m)

Type locality: Luidan River; Bundu Tuhan; Mount Kinabalu, North Borneo  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: MCZ 43580 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Maxillary teeth modified; third and fourth supra-labials entering orbit; preocular present; mental touching anterior chin shields; color blackish brown above with a narrow white line between successive scale rows; immaculate yellowish white below (Inger & Marx 1965: 92).

Description. Rostral wider than high, portion visible from above 2/3 length of prefrontal suture; prefrontal 5/6 length of frontal, touching first 2 supralabials; frontal hexagonal, 1.33 to 2 times width of supraocular, about 2/3 to 3/4 length of parietal; parietal 1.66 to 2 times length of prefrontal paraparietal surrounded by 5 shields and scales; nasal smaller than postocular; preocular present; neither ocular as high as eye; eye equal to or slightly greater than eye-mouth distance; 5 supralabials, third and fourth entering orbit, fifth the largest, first 4 subequal; mental triangular, touching anterior chin shields; 5 infralabials, first 3 touching anterior chin shields; both pairs of chin shields meeting in midline; 3 gulars in midline between posterior chin shields and first ventral (Inger & Marx 1965: 92, including info below).

Body thickness index 0.017-0.039 (5 specimens); tail thick, tapering from base to a sharp point (Fig. 10B) ; dorsal scales reduce to four rows on tail opposite ninth to thirteenth subcaudal anterior to terminal scute.

Teeth: Nine to 10 modified maxillary teeth (4 specimens).

Ventrals: males, 155-179 (mean 168.5; N=6); females, 183-192 (mean 187.2; N=5). Subcaudals: males, 16-18 (mean 16.7; N=6); females, 13-16 (mean 14.5; N=4).

Total length: males, 192-425 mm.; females, 375-488 mm. Ratio of tail to total length: males, 0.059-0.068; (mean 0.063; N=6); females, 0.048 0.056 (mean 0.052; N=4).

Coloration: dark brown above; dark portion of scales without network; blackish brown stripes occupying central 2/3 of each scale row above the first, yellowish stripes on edges on adjacent scale rows; scales of first row yellow, immaculate in anterior part of body, usually each scale with a small dark spot in posterior half of body; head dark brown above; supralabials yellow in lower 2/3; head below immaculate yellow; an oblique light bar running forward from gular region onto rear of parietals; ventrals immaculate yellow; subcaudals yellow, usually a faint zig-zag dark line mid-ventrally (Inger & Marx 1965: 93). 
Comment 
EtymologyNamed after John Augustus Griswold Jr. (1912-1991), American aviculturist and ornithologist who was on the Harvard primate expeditions to Borneo (1936), Thailand (1937), and Peru (1939). He became Curator of Birds, Philadelphia Zoological Gardens (1947). He collected the type. 
References
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. L., H. Kaiser & N. S. Yaakob 2004. A new species of Reed Snake of the genus Calamaria H. Boie, 1827, from Pulau Tioman, Pahang, West Malaysia. Hamadryad 28 (1&2): 1-6
  • Inger, R. F. & H. MARX 1965. The systematics and evolution of the oriental colubrid snakes of the genus Calamaria. Fieldiana: Zoology 49: 1-304. - get paper here
  • Inger, R.F. & Voris, H. K. 2001. The biogeographical relations of the frogs and snakes of Sundaland. Journal of Biogeography 28: 863-89 1
  • Loveridge, A. 1938. New snakes of the genera Calamaria, Bungarus and Trimeresurus from Mt. Kinabalu, North Borneo. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 51: 43-46. - get paper here
  • Malkmus, R.; Manthey, U.; Vogel, G. Hoffmann, P. & Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Ganther Verlag, Rugell, 404 pp.
  • Malkmus,R. 1985. Amphibien und Reptilien vom Mount Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo. Herpetofauna 7 (35): 6-13 - get paper here
  • Manthey,U. 1983. Exkursion am Mt. Kinabalu (4101 m), Nordborneo, Teil 3: Checkliste der Herpetofauna oberhalb 600 m ü. NN. Herpetofauna 5 (23): 20-31 - get paper here
  • Marx, H. & R. F. INGER 1955. Notes on the snakes of the genus Calamaria. Fieldiana: Zoology 37: 167 - 209 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1931. The herpetology of Mt. Kinabalu, North Borneo, 13455 ft. Bull. Raffles Mus. 5: 3-32.
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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