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Calamodontophis paucidens (AMARAL, 1936)

IUCN Red List - Calamodontophis paucidens - Vulnerable, VU

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Tropical Forest Snake
Portuguese: Cobra-Espada-dos-Pampas, Cobra-Espada-Xadrez, Falsa-Cobra-Espada 
SynonymCalamodon paucidens AMARAL 1936: 204
Calamodontophis paucidens — AMARAL 1963 (nom. subst.)
Calamodontophis paucidens — PAGINI & LEMA 1987
Calamodontophis paucidens — FRANCO et al. 2006
Calamodontophis paucidens — WALLACH et al. 2014: 143
Calamodontophis paucidens — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Calamodontophis paucidens — TREVINE et al. 2022 
DistributionBrazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Paraná), Uruguay

Type locality: the village of São Simão, nowadays Remonta railroad station (29°57’S; 54°57’W), municipality of Cacequi (29°53’S; 54°49’W), state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: IBSP (= IB) 8847, female 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): The genus is distinguished from all other genera of Tachymenini by the combination of the following characters: dorsal scales in 15 rows without reduction on the body, an apical pit present; dark postocular stripe absent; caudal gland highly developed; nasal shield entire (Franco, 2000).

Diagnosis: Dorsals in 15/15/15 rows of smooth scales with one apical pit; supralabials 7; infralabials 8; circular pupil; homogeneously dark oral and cloacal mucosa; dorsal scales bordered in a black and white pattern, occasionally forming black and white ocelli; ventral portion of body and head immaculate (no blotches, stripes, or lines); and post-diastema teeth not differentiated (same size as other maxillary teeth). (Trevine et al. 2022)

Synapomorphies. Dorsal scales in 15 rows, one preocular, postocular stripe absent, small spines on the base of the hemipenis restricted to minor delimited areas, latero-anterior margin of the parietal bone does not delimit ocular orbit, single basioccipital crest (Appendix S3-S5 in Trevine et al. 2022). 
CommentCalamodon is preoccupied by a fossil mammal.

Type species: Calamodon paucidens AMARAL 1936 is the type species of the genus Calamodontophis. 
  • Amaral, A. do 1936. Contribuicao ao cohecimento dos ophidos do Brasil. VII. Novas generos e especies de Colubridoes opisthoglyphos. Mem. Inst. Butantan 9 (1935): 203-207 - get paper here
  • AMARAL, A. DO 1963. Geochelone from the Pleistocene of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles. Copeia 1963 (3): 579-580 - get paper here
  • Bailey, Joseph R. 1966. A redescription of the snake Calamodontophis paucidens. Copeia 1966 (4): 885-886 - get paper here
  • Carreira Vidal, Santiago 2002. Alimentación de los ofidios de Uruguay. Asoc. Herp. Esp., Monograf. Herp. 6, 127 pp. - get paper here
  • CARREIRA, S. 2006. Calamodontophis. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles 819: 1-3. - get paper here
  • Carreira, S. & R. Maneyro. 2015. Lista Roja de los Anfbios y Reptiles del Uruguay. Dirección Nacional de Medio Ambiente, Montevideo, 64 pp. - get paper here
  • CARREIRA, S., M. MENEGHEL AND F. ACHAVAL 2005. Reptiles de Uruguay. DI.R.A.C., Facultad de Ciências Ed., Montevideo, 637 pp.
  • Carreira, S.; Brazeiro, A.; Camargo, A.; da Rosa, I.; Canavero, A. & Maneyro, M. 2012. DIVERSITY OF REPTILES OF URUGUAY: KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION GAPS. Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 9-29 - get paper here
  • Carreira, Santiago; Ignacio Lombardo & Federico Achaval-Coppes. 2012. NUEVOS REGISTROS DE OFIDIOS POCO CONOCIDOS EN URUGUAY (REPTILIA: SQUAMATA: SERPENTES). Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2a época) 21 (1-2): 70-74 - get paper here
  • Carreira, Santiago; Lombardo, Ignacio. 2008. The hemipenis and external morphology of a new specimen of Calamodontophis paucidens (Amaral, 1935) (Serpentes: Colubridae, Dipsadinae, Tachymenini) from Uruguay. Herpetological Review 39 (3):282-283 - get paper here
  • Franco, F. L., E. L. Salomão, M. B. Martins, M. DI BERNARDO, M. Meneghel, and S. Carreira 2001. New records of Calamodontophis pauciden (Serpentes, Colubridae, Xenodontinae) from Brazil and Uruguay. Cuadernos de Herpetología 14: 155-159. - get paper here
  • Franco, F. L.; L.A. de Carvalho Cintra & de Lema, T. 2006. A NEW SPECIES OF CALAMODONTOPHIS AMARAL, 1963 (SERPENTES, COLUBRIDAE, XENODONTINAE) FROM SOUTHERN BRAZIL. South American J. Herp. 1 (3): 218-226 - get paper here
  • Gonzalez R. C. et al. 2020. Lista dos Nomes Populares dos Répteis no Brasil – Primeira Versão. Herpetologia Brasileira 9 (2): 121 – 214 - get paper here
  • Nogueira, Cristiano C.; Antonio J.S. Argôlo, Vanesa Arzamendia, Josué A. Azevedo, Fausto E. Barbo, Renato S. Bérnils, Bruna E. Bolochio, Marcio Borges-Martins, Marcela Brasil-Godinho, Henrique Braz, Marcus A. Buononato, Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia, 2019. Atlas of Brazilian snakes: verified point-locality maps to mitigate the Wallacean shortfall in a megadiverse snake fauna. South American J. Herp. 14 (Special Issue 1):1-274 - get paper here
  • Pagini, E. & Lema, T. de 1987. REENCONTRO DE Calamodontophis paucidens (AMARAL, 1936) E CONTRIBUICAO AO CONHECIMENTO DO GÉNERO E DA ESPÉCIE(SERPENTES, COLUBRIDAE, TACHYMENINAE). Com. Mus. Cienc. PUCRS (47): 195-208
  • Trevine, V. C., Grazziotin, F. G., Giraudo, A., Sallesbery‐Pinchera, N., Vianna, J. A., & Zaher, H. 2022. The systematics of Tachymenini (Serpentes, Dipsadidae): An updated classification based on molecular and morphological evidence. Zoologica Scripta - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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