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Calamophis ruuddelangi MURPHY, 2012

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Higher TaxaHomalopsidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Kebar Stout-tailed Snake 
SynonymCalamophis ruuddelangi MURPHY 2012
Brachyorrhos jobiensis — PETERS & DORIA 1878: 371
Calamophis jobiensis: — SAUVAGE 1878: 60
Brachyorrhos albus — BOULENGER 1893: 305
Calamophis ruuddelangi — MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 8
Calamophis ruuddelangi — WALLACH et al. 2014: 143 
DistributionWest Papua New Guinea, Indonesia

Type locality: Ambuaki in the Tamrau Mountains (~ 0°46'S, 132°57'E) West Papua.  
Reproduction 
TypesHolotype: MNHN-RA 5175. A 261 mm (total length) male. Collected by Achille Raffray, about 1877. Paratype. BPBM 3850. A 246 mm (total length) male; collected in West Papua, Manokwari Division, Kebar Valley, about 550 m by L. & S. Quate in Jan. 1962 (appears to be a road kill). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Gracile cylindrical body, relatively short tail (12% of SVL); six upper labials, fifth tallest, three and four shorter, ventrals 143–145, subcaudals 21–23 (MURPHY & VORIS 2014).

Diagnosis. A gracile Calamophis with a cylindrical body and relatively short tail (12% of SVL); six upper labials, fifth tallest, three and four are distinctly shorter, 143–145 ventrals, 21–23 subcaudals. B. jobiensis has more ventrals (164) and fewer subcaudals (10), hexagonal frontal, and a dorsal pattern of fine white lines that run the length of the body. The rostral to frontal distance is less than the length of the parietal seam. The species lacks the distinct ventro-lateral stripe found in C. katesandersae and has a longer tail. Note: Sauvage (1878) discusses this specimen (MNHN 5175) as C. jobiensis and reports it having 15 dorsal scale rows, 142 ventrals and 21 subcaudals. Only his subcaudal counts agree with the data collected for this study (Murphy 2012).

Description of holotype. A 232 mm SVL male with a 29 mm tail; tail/SVL = 12.5%. Body cylindrical with slight constriction at base of tail. The rostral is barely visible from above and separates the single, undivided nasals; nares are visible from above, centered in the scale; the internasal is small, and shorter than the supraocular; prefrontal, loreal, and preocular are fused to form a PLP shield that makes contact with upper labials and the orbit; upper labials six; upper labials 2–3 make contact with the PLP shield, the 3+4 enter the orbit, the fifth is the tallest. The primary temporal scale is larger than the nearby dorsal scales, secondary temporal not differentiated. Lower labials seven; the first pair of lower labials make contact on the midline of the chin posterior to the mental; first four contact the chin shields; two pair of chin shields, the second pair barely distinguishable from the gulars. Dorsal scales on the body are smooth and in 19 rows on the neck and at mid body, posterior reduction to 17 rows in front of the vent; dorsal scales in the first four rows above the vent have tubercles, these extend anteriorly five or six ventrals and posteriorly for 2–3 subcaudals. Ventrals 143, rounded, subcaudals divided, 21/21.
In alcohol: overall appearance is a small, gracile, uniform brown snake from above; each dorsal scale has a dark center and a lighter outer edge. Crown brown, rostral, lower edge of upper labials cream, lower labials cream, scales posterior to jaw cream and narrow into an anterior stripe on the first dorsal row of scales for about the first 10 ventrals; each ventral scale is dark brown with a lighter lateral edge, which forms an indistinct stripe (Murphy 2012). 
CommentThis species is based on two, presumably adult specimens, collected at two localities about 96 years apart.

Similar species: Sauvage (1878) discusses this specimen (MNHN 5175) as C. jobiensis and reports it having 15 dorsal scale rows, 142 ventrals and 21 subcaudals. Only his subcaudal counts agree with the data collected for this study. 
EtymologyNamed in honour of Ruud de Lang for his work on the herpetofauna of Indonesia. 
References
  • Murphy, J.C. & Voris, H.K. 2014. A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera. FIELDIANA: LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES (8): 1–43 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C. 2012. Synonymised and forgotten, the bird’s head stout-tailed snakes, Calamophis Meyer (Squamata: Serpentes: Homalopsidae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 60 (2): 515-523 - get paper here
  • O’Shea M and Kaiser H. 2016. The first female specimen of the poorly known Arfak Stout-tailed Snake, Calamophis sharonbrooksae Mur- phy, 2012 (Serpentes: Colubroidea: Homalopsidae), from the Vogelkop Peninsula of Indonesian West New Guinea, with comments on the taxonomic history Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 10(2) [General Section]: 1–10 (e122)
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
 
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