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Calotes paulus (SMITH, 1935)

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Higher TaxaAgamidae (Draconinae), Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Small Forest Lizard
Chinese: 异鳞蜥 
SynonymCalotes minor GRAY 1845: 244
Oriocalotes minor GÜNTHER 1864: 147
Oreocalotes [sic] minor — JERDON 1870:77
Charasia minor — THEOBALD 1876:113 (partim)
Acanthosaura minor — BOULENGER 1885: 304
Acanthosaura minor — BOULENGER 1890
Oriocalotes paulus SMITH 1935: 166 (nom. nov.)
Oriocalotes paulus — WERMUTH 1967: 73
Oriocalotes paulus — MANTHEY & SCHUSTER 1999: 86
Oriocalotes paulus — ANANJEVA 2011
Calotes paulus — GIRI et al. 2019 
DistributionIndia (E Himalaya, Khasi Hills, Meghalaya, Sikkim ?), China (Xizang = Tibet)

Type locality: from “Affghanistan” (in error, likely to be Khasi Hills [in Meghalaya state, Northeast India], fide Günther 1864; type locality referred to as “Khasi Hills” by Smith 1935 without discussion).  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.8.11.28, adult male, (previously BMNH xxiii.30.B), designated by Giri et al. 2019: 461. Paralectotypes: BMNH 1946.8.11.27, 1946.8.11.29, BMNH 1946.8.11.35 (previously BMNH xxiii.30.D). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (Oriocalotes): Günther (1864) used the following suite of characters to diagnose his new genus “Tympanum naked, back and sides covered with scales of moderate size, between which larger ones are intermixed; their tips are directed backwards and upwards; a spine behind the supraciliary edge. Dorsal crest present, formed by non-united spines, less distinct in the female than in the male. Gular sac none. Tail rounded, with keeled scales below, which are as broad as long.” (cited from Giri et al. 2019: 451).

Diagnosis (paulus): A medium sized Calotes, snout to vent length averaging 57.5 ± 12.5 mm, and maximum to at least 71.0 mm. Body feebly compressed with a weak dorsal crest; scales on top of head highly heterogeneous, keeled, those above orbits are largest, scales surrounding parietal are more or less similar in size; three spines on each side of head, one above orbit, one above tympanum and one on temporal region on each side; dorsal pholidosis heterogeneous, composed of medium sized, weakly pointed, strongly keeled scales intermixed with similar but slightly larger scales which are distinct on flanks; upper rows directed backwards and upwards and a few lower rows directed backwards; 42–46 midbody scale rows; a weakly developed fold anterior to forelimb insertion having granular scales; tympanum small, typically covered by a single large scale; tail rounded; seven to nine supralabials and seven to nine infralabials; lamellae bicarinate, 18–23 on fourth finger and 20–26 on fourth toe. Presence of heterogeneous scales on dorsum and weakly developed dorsal crest of Calotes paulus comb. nov. distinguish it from all known congeners. 
CommentSynonymy: See SMITH 1935: 226 for reasons of name change. The name Calotes minor appears to be based on a misinterpretation of Agama minor HARDWICKE & GRAY 1827, hence SMITH’s name is the first legitimate name for the species (fide WERMUTH 1967). However, Smith’s replacement name “paulus” was unjustified and so Oriocalotes minor (Gray) should be the valid name. However Smith’s action has remained unquestioned until now and Oriocalotes paulus is the only name in use for this taxon (e.g., Wermuth 1967; Moody 1980; Diong & Lim 1998; Manthey & Schuster 1999; Manthey & Denzer 2000; Zhao et al. 2000; Mahony 2010; Venugopal 2010; Ananjeva et al 2011; Huang et al. 2011; Deepak et al. 2015).

Distribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012).

Type species: Oriocalotes paulus SMITH 1935 is the type species of the genus Oriocalotes GÜNTHER 1864 which was synonymized with Calotes by Giri et al. 2019. 
  • ANANJEVA, Natalia B.; Nikolay L. ORLOV and Tao Thien NGUYEN 2017. A New Species of Japalura (Agamidae: Lacertilia: Reptilia) from Central Highland, Vietnam. Asian Herpetological Research 8 (1): 14–21 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • GIRI, VARAD. B.; R. CHAITANYA, STEPHEN MAHONY, SAMUEL LALROUNGA, C. LALRINCHHANA, ABHIJIT DAS, VIVEK SARKAR, PRAVEEN KARANTH, V. DEEPAK 2019. On the systematic status of the genus Oriocalotes Günther, 1864 (Squamata: Agamidae: Draconinae) with the description of a new species from Mizoram state, Northeast India. Zootaxa 4638 (4): 451–484 - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Kästle, W.; Schleich, H.H. 1998. Notes on Comparative Ethology and Taxonomy of the Genus Japalura. In: Contributions to the herpetology of south-Asia (Nepal, India). pp: 223-246. H. H. Schleich & W. Kästle (Eds). Fuhlrott-Museum, Wuppertal.
  • Lenz, Norbert 2012. Von Schmetterlingen und Donnerdrachen - Natur und Kultur in Bhutan. Karlsruher Naturhefte 4, Naturkundemuseum Karlsruhe, 124 pp.
  • Manthey U 2010. Agamid Lizards of Southern Asia. Draconinae 2 -Leiolepidinae. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 7b, Frankfurt, 168 pp.
  • Manthey,U. & SCHUSTER,N. 1999. Agamen, 2. Aufl. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 120 pp. - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1935. The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Reptiles and Amphibia, Vol. II. Sauria. Taylor and Francis, London, 440 pp.
  • Venugopal, P.D. 2010. An updated and annotated list of Indian lizards (Reptilia: Sauria) based on a review of distribution records and checklists of Indian reptiles. Journal of Threatened Taxa 2 (3): 725-738. - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Zhao,E. & Adler,K. 1993. Herpetology of China. SSAR, Oxford/Ohio, 1-522
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