Calumma fallax (MOCQUARD, 1900)
Can you confirm these amateur observations of Calumma fallax?
|Higher Taxa||Chamaeleonidae, Sauria, Iguania, Squamata (lizards)|
|Synonym||Chamaeleon fallax MOCQUARD 1900: 345|
Chamaeleon fallax — WERNER 911: 40
Calumma fallax — KLAVER & BÖHME 1986
Calumma fallax — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 248
Calumma fallax — NECAS 1999: 278
Calumma fallax — PRÖTZEL et al. 2020: 48
|Distribution||E Madagascar (from Andohahela in the south to Mandraka about 650 km further north), elevation 922–1781 m|
Type locality: Forét d’Ikongo, Madagascar
|Types||Lectotype: MNHN 1899.317, adult male, designated by Prötzel et al. 2020: 49. Paralectotypes: MNHN -RA 1899.0318; MNHN-RA 1888.0024; MNHN-RA 1890.0430-0432.|
|Diagnosis||Diagnosis (based on the type series and the referred material, see above; osteology based on micro-CT scans of MNHN 1899.317, MNHN 1890.430, ZSM 693/2003, and ZSM 286/2010, all four males): Calumma fallax is characterised by (1) a medium size (male SVL 42.9 – 50.6 mm, female SVL 40.8 – 50.7 mm; male TL 90.9 – 107.3 mm, female TL 77.3 – 99.8 mm), (2) a long (1.8 – 4.3 mm in males, 1.7 – 3.2 mm in females) and distally rounded rostral appendage, (3) rostral scale not integrated into the rostral appendage, (4) prominent rostral crest forming a concave cup on the snout, (5) lateral crests present, (6) temporal crest generally present, (7) cranial crest generally absent, (8) parietal crest generally present but short, (9) a distinctly raised casque in males with a height of 1.3 – 2.5 mm, (10) a dorsal crest of 6 – 11 cones in males, generally absent in females (one specimen with five cones), (11) 10 – 16 supralabial scales with a straight upper margin, (12) absence of axillary pits, (13) diameter of the largest scale in the temporal region of the head 0.8 – 1.8 mm, (14) a frontoparietal fenestra in the skull, (15) parietal and squamosal generally in contact, (16) parietal bone width at midpoint 6.7 – 15.7% of skull length, (17) a generally greenish, greyish, or brownish body colouration, (18) a typically blue or grey nose in non-stressed colouration, (19) a green cheek colouration, (20) three blue dorsoventral stripes on the body and a white lateral stripe, and (21) a diffuse brown strip crossing the eye.|
C. fallax can be distinguished from all species of the C. boettgeri complex (see above) by the absence of occipital lobes; from C. gallus by different length, shape and colour of its rostral appendage (see above); from all other species of the C. nasutum group without occipital lobes (except for C. ratnasariae, see below) by the presence of a frontoparietal fenestra.
In addition, it can be distinguished from C. vatosoa by the presence of a rostral appendage (vs absence); from C. vohibola by longer rostral appendage (RRS 4.2 – 8.5% vs 0.2 – 3.1%), supralabials with a straight upper margin (vs serrated), parietal crest generally present (vs absent); from C. nasutum as here redefined by general absence of cranial crest (vs present), a shorter frontal (39.4–50.4% of skull length vs 51.2–82.1%), blue rostral appendage (vs brown), and three blue lateral blotches (vs four brown blotches with light spots); from C. radamanus by rostral scale not integrated into the rostral appendage (vs generally integrated), parietal crest generally present (vs absent), supralabials with a straight upper margin (vs serrated), parietal and squamosal in contact or closely approaching (vs widely separated), and width of parietal at midpoint (6.7–15.7% vs 16.1–22.4%); from C. emelinae sp. nov. by general presence of parietal crest (vs general absence), higher casque in males (1.3 – 2.5 mm vs 0.5 – 1.1 mm), dorsal crest consisting of cones (vs spines) in males, and larger temporal scale in males (0.8 – 1.6 mm vs 0.7 mm); from C. tjiasmantoi sp. nov. by fewer supralabials (10 – 15 vs 15 – 17), larger diameter of temporal scale (1.0 – 1.8 mm vs 0.6 – 0.8 mm), and slightly narrower postparietal process.
|Etymology||A Latin adjective meaning ‘deceptive’ or ‘fallacious’ in the neutral nominative, with unclear justification.|