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Calyptotis scutirostrum (PETERS, 1874)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Scute-snouted Calyptotis 
SynonymLygosoma scutirostrum PETERS 1874: 743
Cophoscincus obscurus O’SHAUGHNESSY 1874: 35
Lygosoma scutirostris — MÜLLER 1880
Calyptotis flaviventer DE VIS 1886
Calyptotis flaviventer — LONGMAN 1916
Lygosoma (Sphenomorphus) scutirostrum — SMITH 1937: 221
Sphenomorphus scutirostrus — COGGER 1983
Calyptotis scutirostrum — GREER 1983: 39
Calyptotis scutirostrum — COGGER 2000: 388
Calyptotis scutirostris — REEDER 2003
Calyptotis scutirostrum — WILSON & SWAN 2010 
DistributionAustralia (New South Wales, Queensland)

Type locality: “Port Bowen” [= Port Clinton, Queensland]  
TypesHolotype: ZMB 7823 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). A genus of Australian Sphenomorphini skinks sharing the following combination of derived character states: limbs short, hind limb length no more than 33% of SVL, toes short, with loss of one phalanx from the fourth finger of the manus ( and one from the fifth toe of the pes (, small to large posteriorly-directed processes on the palatal rami of the pterygoids which may be separated by moderate (C. ruficauda) to small (C. lepidorostrum, C. scutirostrum) posterior processes of the palatines or are in medial contact (C. temporalis); single loreal scale; lower secondary temporal scale overlaps the upper secondary temporal; postmental scale contacts only the first infralabial scale; midbody scale rows 19–24; external ear a scaly depression in C. lepidorostrum and C. scutirostrum. (Torkkola et al. 2022, supplementary file S7).

Diagnosis: Calyptotis scutirostrum differs from all other species of Calyptotis in combining the absence of prefrontal scales with the presence of a scaly, conical auricular depression (GREER 1983: 39). 
CommentSynonymy: mostly after GREER 1983: 39.

Type species: Calyptotis flaviventer DE VIS 1886 is the type species of the genus Calyptotis DE VIS 1886.

Phylogenetics: see Singhal et al. 2017 and 2018 for a phylogeny of Australian sphenomorphine skinks.

Limb morphology: 5 digits, 5 toes (Singhal et al. 2018, Brandley et al 2008)

Morphology: Hutchinson et al. 2021 present a table of morphological character states across 20 Australian sphenomorphine skinks, including this genus. 
EtymologyAlthough Wilhelm Peters did not specifically state that the name scutirostrum derived from the large frontonasal scale of the type, he described the scale and perhaps sought to emphasize it with this name. 
  • Bauer, A.M.; Günther,R. & Klipfel,M. 1995. The herpetological contributions of Wilhelm C.H. Peters (1815-1883). SSAR Facsimile Reprints in Herpetology, 714 pp.
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Couper, P., Covacevich, J., Amey, A. & Baker, A. 2006. The genera of skinks (Family Scincidae) of Australia and its island territories: diversity, distribution and identification. in: Merrick, J.R., Archer, M., Hickey, G.M. & Lee, M.S.Y. (eds.). Evolution and Zoogeography of Australasian Vertebrates. Australian Scientific Publishing, Sydney, pp. 367-384
  • Daly, Garry and Glenn Hoye 2016. Survey of the reptiles of the montane forests near Dorrigo on the north coast of New South Wales. Australian Zoologist 38 (1): 26-42 - get paper here
  • Greer A E 1983. The Australian scincid lizard genus Calyptotis de Vis: resurrection of the name, description of four new species, and discussion of relationships. Rec. Austral. Mus. 35 (1): 29-59 - get paper here
  • Hutchinson, M. N., Couper, P., Amey, A., & Wilmer, J. W. 2021. Diversity and Systematics of Limbless Skinks (Anomalopus) from Eastern Australia and the Skeletal Changes that Accompany the Substrate Swimming Body Form. Journal of Herpetology 55 (4): 361-384 - get paper here
  • Longman, H. A. 1916. Snakes and lizards from Queensland and the Northern Territory. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 5: 46-51 - get paper here
  • Müller, F. 1880. Erster Nachtrag zum Katalog der herpetologischen Sammlung des Basler Museums. Verh. Naturf. Ges. Basel 7: 120-165 - get paper here
  • O’Shaughnessy,A.W.E. 1874. Description of a new species of skink. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (4) 14: 35 - get paper here
  • Peters, Wilhem Carl Hartwig 1874. Über neue Saurier (Spæriodactylus, Anolis, Phrynosoma, Tropidolepisma, Lygosoma, Ophioscincus) aus Centralamerica, Mexico und Australien. Monatsber. königl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin. 1873 (November): 738-747 - get paper here
  • Reeder, T.W. 2003. A phylogeny of the Australian Sphenomorphus group (Scincidae: Squamata) and the phylogenetic placement of the crocodile skinks (Tribolonotus): Bayesian approaches to assessing congruence and obtaining confidence in maximum likelihood inferred relatio Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 27: 384–397 - get paper here
  • Singhal, Sonal; Huateng Huang, Maggie R. Grundler, María R. Marchán-Rivadeneira, Iris Holmes, Pascal O. Title, Stephen C. Donnellan, and Daniel L. Rabosky 2018. Does Population Structure Predict the Rate of Speciation? A Comparative Test across Australia’s Most Diverse Vertebrate Radiation. The American Naturalist - get paper here
  • Skinner, Adam; Mark N. Hutchinson, Michael S.Y. Lee 2013. Phylogeny and Divergence Times of Australian Sphenomorphus Group Skinks (Scincidae, Squamata). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 69 (3): 906–918 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1937. A review of the genus Lygosoma (Scincidae: Reptilia) and its allies. Records of the Indian Museum 39 (3): 213-234
  • Swan, G.; Sadlier, R.; Shea, G. 2017. A field guide to reptiles of New South Wales. Reed New Holland, 328 pp.
  • Torkkola, J. J., Wilmer, J. W., Hutchinson, M. N., Couper, P. J., & Oliver, P. M. 2022. Die on this hill? A new monotypic, microendemic and montane vertebrate genus from the Australian Wet Tropics. Zoologica Scripta 51, 483– 497 - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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