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Cemophora lineri (WILLIAMS, BROWN & WILSON, 1966)

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Higher TaxaColubridae, Colubrinae, Lampropeltini, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Texas Scarlet Snake
G: Texas-Scharlachnatter 
SynonymCemophora coccinea lineri WILLIAMS, BROWN & WILSON 1966
Cemophora lineri — COLLINS 1991: 43
Cemophora coccinea lineri — CROTHER 2000: 57
Cemophora coccinea lineri — TENNANT & BARTLETT 2000: 452
Cemophora coccinea lineri — CROTHER et al. 2012
Cemophora lineri — WEINELL & AUSTIN 2017 
DistributionUSA (S Texas)

Type locality: 55.5 km S of Riviera, Kenedy County, Texas, United States, approximately 26 847040.74"N, 97848050.4714"W, 5 m elevation  
TypesHolotype: AMNH 75307, adult female, collected by Ernest A. Liner and Richard Whitten on 29 June 1963 (Williams et al., 1966). Paratype. BCB 10993, adult female, from King Ranch, Kenedy County, Texas, precise coordinates unknown, collected by Brian P. Glass in 1951 (Williams et al., 1966). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. A medium-sized species of the genus Cemophora, tribe Lampropeltini, family Colubridae. Distinguished from other lampropeltine species by the following combination of characters: 7 supralabial scales; enlarged posterior maxillary teeth; dorsal scales smooth in 19 rows at midbody; anal scale entire; 178–195 ventral scales; 13–18 red dorsal blotches before tail, bordered anteriorly and posteriorly by black bands; black dorsal bands extend laterally to the third, fourth, or fifth dorsal scale row (between midbody and tail); background dorsal color yellow, white, or gray; ventral color white.

Comparisons. Cemophora lineri differs from C. coccinea in having a greater average number of ventral scales (C. lineri: 178– 195 [X = 186.1]; C. coccinea: 150–185 [X = 167.5]) and black dorsal bands that extend to the third, fourth, or fifth dorsal scale row (vs. extending laterally to dorsal scale row one or two in C. coccinea). 
CommentSee also C. coccinea. 
EtymologyThe specific name lineri is a patronym, named for Ernest A. Liner, who collected the holotype in 1963 with Richard Whitten (Williams et al., 1966). 
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Duran M 2021. An annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of North Padre Island, Texas, USA, with comparisons to adjacent barrier island and mainland herpetofauna. ZooKeys 1073: 119-175 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Weinell, Jeffrey L. and Christopher C. Austin 2017. Refugia and Speciation in North American Scarlet Snakes (Cemophora). Journal of Herpetology 51 (1): 161–171 - get paper here
  • Williams K L 1985. Cemophora Cope. Scarlet snake. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 374: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Williams, Kenneth L.;Brown, Bryce C.;Wilson, Larry David 1966. A new subspecies of the colubrid snake Cemophora coccinea (Blumenbach) from Southern Texas. Texas Journal of Science 18: 85-88
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