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Centrosaura apodema (UZZELL, 1966)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Uzzell's Neusticurus 
SynonymNeusticurus apodemus UZZELL 1966
Neusticurus apodemus — KÖHLER 2000: 104
Neusticurus apodemus — SAVAGE 2002: 523
Potamites apodemus — DOAN & CASTOE et al. 2005
Neusticurus apodemus — KÖHLER 2008
Echinosaura apodema — MARQUES-SOUZA et al. 2018
Centrosaura apodema — VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019 
DistributionCosta Rica, Panama

Type locality: 15 SW San Isidro del General, Provinz San José, Costa Rica, 865 m elevation  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: KU 67375; paratypes: KU, UMMZ, 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: (genus Centrosaurua): Phenotypic characteristics of Centrosaura include: (1) dorsal scales heterogeneous, with large or polygonal, longitudinally keeled scales intermixed with small irregular scales; (2) dorsal surface of the head with small, asymmetrical and non-paired scales anteriorly, and with large regular scales posteriorly; (3) several scales on internasal and frontonasal region; (4) prefrontals paired; (5) frontal divided; (6) frontoparietals small, paired; (7) interparietal well defined; (8) parietals paired; (9) postmental single, large; (10) large chin shields in three pairs; (11) lower eyelid developed, with a palpebral disc divided into several, unpigmented scales; (12) ventral scales squared, not imbricated; (13) limbs pentadactyl, digits clawed; (14) femoral pores in both sexes, with males having more femoral pores than females.
Centrosaura differs from other cercosaurine genera except Echinosaura s.s., Gelanesaurus, Neusticurus, Potamites and Rheosaurus in having heterogeneous dorsal scalation. It differs from Echinosaura in having large, longitudinally keeled dorsal scales intermixed with small irregular scales (vs. small or granular, irregular dorsal scales intermixed with tubercular or spine-like scales), a well-defined interparietal (vs. irregular scales on parietal region) and irregular and asymmetrical scales on prefrontal–nasal region with paired prefrontals (vs. symmetrical scales on prefrontal–nasal region and prefrontals usually absent); from Gelanesaurus in lacking a black ring around the nostril (vs. black ring around the nostril present); from Neusticurus in having a slightly compressed tail (vs. strongly compressed tail) and calcareous spinules on flounces of hemipenes (vs. no calcareous spinules on hemipenes); from Potamites in having irregular scales on prefrontal–nasal region (vs. a single frontonasal) and from the new genus Rheosaurus in having internasal irregularly divided (vs. internasal symmetrically divided), several irregular scales in frontonasal region (vs. three frontonasals) and frontal divided (vs. frontal single). Centrosaura differs from Andinosaura, its sister- clade, in having heterogeneous dorsal scalation (vs. homogenous dorsal scalation) and irregular scales on prefrontal–nasal region with prefrontals present (vs. a single frontonasal and prefrontals usually absent). For comparisons among related or similar genera see Figure 9 and Table 5 in VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019. 
CommentType species: Neusticurus apodemus UZZELL 1966 is the type species of the genus Centrosaura VÁSQUEZ-RESTREPO et al. 2019. The sister-clade to Centrosaura is Andinosaura. 
EtymologyCentrosaura (gender feminine) is derived from the Latin centrum (centre or middle) and the Greek σαύρα, saura (lizard), in reference to its geographic distribution in Central America. 
References
  • Avila-Pires, Teresa C. S. and Laurie J. Vitt. 1998. A new species of Neusticurus (Reptilia: Gymnophthalmidae) from the Rio Juruá, Acre, Brazil. Herpetologica 54 (2):235-245. - get paper here
  • Doan, T. M. & Castoe, T.A. 2005. Phylogenetic taxonomy of the Cercosaurini (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with new genera for species of Neusticurus and Proctoporus. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 143: 405–416.
  • Köhler, G. 2000. Reptilien und Amphibien Mittelamerikas, Bd 1: Krokodile, Schildkröten, Echsen. Herpeton Verlag, Offenbach, 158 pp.
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lotzkat, S.; A. Batista; J. Vargas; A. Hertz; G. Köhler. 2012. Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae, Potamites apodemus (Uzzell, 1966): Distribution extension and first records from Panama. Check List 8(2):302-306 - get paper here
  • Marques-Souza S, Prates I, Fouquet A, et al. 2018. Reconquering the water: Evolution and systematics of South and Central American aquatic lizards (Gymnophthalmidae). Zool Scripta 47: 255–265 - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Uzzell, Thomas M. 1966. Teid Lizards of the genus Neusticurus (Reptilia, Sauria). Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 132 (5): 279-327
  • Vásquez-Restrepo, Juan D; Roberto Ibáñez, Santiago J Sánchez-Pacheco, Juan M Daza, 2019. Phylogeny, taxonomy and distribution of the Neotropical lizard genus Echinosaura (Squamata: Gymnophthalmidae), with the recognition of two new genera in Cercosaurinae. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 189 (1): 287–314 - get paper here
 
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