You are here » home advanced search Cerberus rynchops

Cerberus rynchops (SCHNEIDER, 1799)

IUCN Red List - Cerberus rynchops - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Cerberus rynchops?

Add your own observation of
Cerberus rynchops »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaHomalopsidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: South Asian Bockadam, New Guinea bockadam, Dog-faced Water Snake
G: Hundskopf-Wassertrugnatter 
SynonymHydrus rynchops SCHNEIDER 1799: 246
Hydrus cinereus SHAW 1802
Coluber cerberus DAUDIN 1803: 167
Python rhynchops — MERREM 1820: 90
Homalopsis cerberus — FITZINGER 1826
Homalopsis molurus H. BOIE 1826
Homalopsis rhynchops — BOIE 1827
Cerberus cerberus — CUVIER 1829
Cerberus cinereus — CANTOR 1839
Homalopsis rhinchops (sic) — CANTOR 1847
Cerberus rhynchops — GÜNTHER 1864: 279
Cerberus rhynchops — ANDERSON 1871: 179
Hurria rynchops — STEJNEGER 1907: 304
Hurria rynchops — MERTENS 1930
Cerberus rynchops — SMITH 1930
Cerberus rynchops rynchops — LOVERIDGE 1948
Cerberus rhynchops [sic]— BOULENGER 1894: 84
Cerberus rhynchops — WALL 1921: 257
Cerberus rynchops — SMITH 1943
Cerberus rhynchops — HENDRICKSON 1966
Cerberus rynchops — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 331
Cerberus rynchops — COGGER 2000: 619
Cerberus rynchops — COX et al. 1998: 39
Cerberus rhynchops — MURTHY 2010
Cerberus rynchops — MURPHY & VORIS 2014: 12
Cerberus rynchops — WALLACH et al. 2014: 155 
Distributioncoastal areas of India (Gujarat, Maharashtra, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Telangana etc.), Bangladesh, Myanmar, Thailand, NW Malaysia, Indonesia (Borneo)

Type locality: “Ganjam” (Orissa State, SE India), (~19°22’N 85°03’E). There are at least two other localities on India’s east coast that contain the name “Ganjam:” Chinna Ganjam and Pedda Ganjam. Both of these are south of Ganjam, all three locations are coastal and within the range of this species. MURPHY et al. 2012 restricted the type locality to Ganjam, India.  
TypesHolotype: iconotype, based on illustration in Russell’s (1796) Indian Serpents 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Cerberus can be distinguished from all other homalopsid snakes with nasal scales in contact by: keeled, striated dorsal scales; absence of rostral appendages; and parietal scales that are partially or completely fragmented. It differs from its sister, Homalopsis, in having fewer scale rows (21–31 at midbody in Cerberus, 33– 49 rows in Homalopsis) and fragmented parietal scales. Most specimens are less than one meter, and the maximum size for most species is less than 1.2 m. The tail is 16–29% of the snout-vent length (SVL). Females are larger than males in the species where both sexes could be examined. Head plates (prefrontal, frontal, and parietals) show a strong tendency to fragment into smaller scales. One or more large posterior upper labials are horizontally divided. Subocular scales may or may not be present, even within a single population. Temporal scales are small and not plate-like. Dorsal scale rows at midbody range from 21–31; however most specimens of most species have 23, 2, or 29 rows at midbody. Dorsal scale ornamentation consists of a strongly striated surface with central keel when viewed with a binocular light microscope with 10x magnification, and some individuals have tubercles on head scales. Ventral scales range from 134–172 and subcaudal scales range from 42–7. Anterior maxillary teeth number 12–19 and are followed by a diastema and a pair of deeply grooved fangs. Three pairs of chin shields are present and the first pair is usually the largest.

Diagnosis (species): Cerberus rynchops can be distinguished from all other members of the genus by its 2 (rarely 23) scale rows at midbody, the imbricate plate-like scales on the crown have a flat, thin appearance and are keeled anterior to angle of jaw; the last two upper labial are horizontally divided; the venter is mottled. Cerberus australis has 23 scale rows at mid-body, and the first upper labial does not contact the loreal (it usually does so in all other Cerberus species). Cerberus dunsoni has 23 scale rows at mid body, rounded juxtaposed scales on the crown, and a uniform black venter. Cerberus schneiderii usually has 23 scale rows at mid-body (rarely 21 or 2), the last upper labial is horizontally divided (as opposed to two in C. rynchops), and the venter is mottled [MURPHY et al. 2012].

Original description: see Bauer & Lavilla 2021

Characters (Andaman islands): Chandramouli 2022 
CommentSynonymy: partly after MURPHY et al. 2012 (see there for more details).

Distribution: Populations from Philippines (Panay), Timor-Leste, Indonesia (Sumatra), Palau etc. have been assigned to C. schneideri (see map in Murphy et al. 2012: 3 (Fig. 1)).

Ecology: This is a saltwater tolaterant species. Not in Pakistan fide KHAN 2002 (pers. comm.)

Type species: Coluber cerberus Daudin (=Hydrus rynchops Schneider) is the type species of the genus Cerberus CUVIER 1829: 81.

Habitat: mangrove forests and mudflats along the shores of brackish estuarine and marine coastal environments (Greer, 1997; Karns et al., 2000); occasionally found in freshwater as well and on sheltered sandy coasts.

Diet: mainly fish (Jayne et al., 1988), crustaceans, tadpoles and frogs (Voris & Murphy, 2002)

Phylogenetics: Note that ALFARO et al. (2004) indicated that C. r. rynchops of Gyi could be split into four to five phylogenetic species correlated with biogeographical regions and C. microlepis was included in the Philippines Cerberus clade. 
EtymologyProbably named after the Greek “rhyncho”, meaning nose or snout (Murphy 2007: 72).

The genus was named after the Greek “kerberos”, the three-headed dog that guarded the entrance to hades in Greek mythology, probably after the forbidding aspects of the snake (fide Wall 1918, Murphy 2007). 
  • Alfaro, Michael E.; Karns, Daryl R.; Voris, Harold K.; Abernathy, Emily; Sellins, Stacey L. 2004. Phylogeny of Cerberus (Serpentes: Homalopsinae) and phylogeography of Cerberus rynchops: diversification of a coastal marine snake in Southeast Asia. Journal of Biogeography 31:1277-1292. - get paper here
  • Anderson, J. 1871. On some Indian reptiles. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1871: 149-211 - get paper here
  • ARIFIN, UMILAELA; DJOKO T. ISKANDAR and ROSITA ELIANUR 2011. Herpetofauna Diversity Of Karimata Island-Indonesia. Proceedings of the Conference “Biology of the Amphibians in the Sunda Region, South-east Asia”. Organized by Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 28–30 September 2009. pp:1–7. Edited by Indraneil Das et al.. Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conse - get paper here
  • Auffenberg W 1980. The herpetofauna of Komodo, with notes on adjacent areas. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 25 (2): 39-156 - get paper here
  • Bauer, A.M. & Lavilla, E.O. (eds.) 2021. J. G. Schneider’s Historiae Amphibiorum: Herpetology at the Dawn of the 19th Century. SSAR, 848 pp. - get paper here
  • Bergman, R.A.M. 1955. L'anatomie de Cerberus rhynchops. Arch. Neerl. Zool. 11:113-126.
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1896. Catalogue of the snakes in the British Museum, Vol. 3. London (Taylor & Francis), xiv + 727 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1897. List of the reptiles and batrachians collected by Mr. Alfred Everett in Lombok, Flores, Sumba and Saru, with descriptions of new species. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 19: 503-509 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. The Fauna of British India, Including Ceylon and Burma. Reptilia and Batrachia. Taylor & Francis, London, xviii, 541 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1894. On the herpetological fauna of Palawan and Balabac. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) 14: 81-90 - get paper here
  • Brown, Rafe M.; Ferner, John W.; Sison, Rogelio V.; Gonzales, Pedro C.; Kennedy, Robert S. 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of the Zambales Mountains of Luzon Island, Republic of the Philippines. Herpetological Natural History 4 (1): 1-22
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • CHANDRAMOULI, S. 2022. Snake fauna of the Andaman Islands, Bay of Bengal—A review of species richness, taxonomy, distribution, natural history and conservation status. Zootaxa, 5209(3), 301-331 - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • Cox, Merel J.; Van Dijk, Peter Paul; Jarujin Nabhitabhata & Thirakhupt,Kumthorn 1998. A Photographic Guide to Snakes and Other Reptiles of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Ralph Curtis Publishing, 144 pp.
  • Crombie, Ronald I. and Gregory K. Pregill 1999. A Checklist of the Herpetofauna of the Palau Islands (Republic of Belau), Oceania. Herpetological Monographs 13: 29-80 - get paper here
  • Cuvier, G. J. L. N. F. D. 1829. Le Regne Animal Distribué, d'apres son Organisation, pur servir de base à l'Histoire naturelle des Animaux et d'introduction à l'Anatomie Comparé. Nouvelle Edition [second edition]. Vol. 2. Les Reptiles. Déterville, Paris, i-xvi, 1-406 - get paper here
  • Das, I. 2012. A Naturalist's Guide to the Snakes of South-East Asia: Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Myanmar, Borneo, Sumatra, Java and Bali. Oxford J, ohn Beaufoy Publishing - get paper here
  • Daudin, F. M. 1802. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles, Vol. 4. F. Dufart, Paris, 397 pp. - get paper here
  • Daudin, F. M. 1803. Histoire Naturelle, Générale et Particulière des Reptiles. vol. 7. Paris: Dufart, 436 pp. [publication date fide Harper 1940] - get paper here
  • David,P. & Vogel, G. 1996. The snakes of Sumatra. An annotated checklist and key with natural history notes. Bücher Kreth, Frankfurt/M.
  • DEVAN-SONG, Anne and Rafe M. BROWN 2012. Amphibians and Reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VI: The Herpetofauna of the Subic Bay Area. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (1): 1–20 - get paper here
  • Dowling, H.G., & Jenner, J.V. 1988. Snakes of Burma: checklist of reported species and bibliography. Smithsonian Herp. Inf. Serv. (76): 19 pp. - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C., Bibron, G. & DUMÉRIL, A. H. A., 1854. Erpétologie générale ou histoire naturelle complète des reptiles. Tome septième. Deuxième partie, comprenant l'histoire des serpents venimeux. Paris, Librairie Encyclopédique de Roret: i-xii + 781-1536 - get paper here
  • Dunson, W.A. & M.K. Dunson 1979. A possible new salt gland in a marine homalopsid snake (Cerberus rynchops) Copeia 1979 (4): 661-672. - get paper here
  • Dunson, William A.;Minton, Sherman A. 1978. Diversity, distribution, and Ecology of Philippine Marine Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Journal of Herpetology 12 (3): 281-286 - get paper here
  • Even, E. 2009. Neuer Nachweis für drei Schlangenarten für die Togian-Inseln, Sulawesi. Elaphe 17 (1): 56-59
  • Ferner, John W., Rafe M. Brown, Rogelio V. Sison and Robert S. Kennedy 2000. The amphibians and reptiles of Panay Island, Philippines. Asiatic Herpetological Research 9: 1-37 - get paper here
  • Fuchs, K. & Fuchs, M. 2004. Schlangenhäute - lässt die Länge der gegerbten Haut wirklich keine Rückschlüsse auf die des lebenden Tieres zu? Draco 5 (17): 74-80 - get paper here
  • GADHVI, I. R. & R. VYAS 2002. First record of the dog - faced water snake: Cerberus rynchops from Saurashtra Sea Coast of Gujarat State. Cobra 49: 13 - 14
  • Ganesh, S., Nandhini, T., Samuel, V., Sreeraj, C., Abhilash, K., Purvaja, R., & Ramesh, R. 2019. Marine snakes of Indian coasts: historical resume, systematic checklist, toxinology, status, and identification key. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 11(1), 13132-13150 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. 2011. The herpetofauna of Panay Island, Philippines. Edition Chimaira, 390 pp.
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Amphibians and reptiles of the Seribuat Archipelago. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 239 pp.
  • Günther, A. 1864. The Reptiles of British India. London (Taylor & Francis), xxvii + 452 pp. - get paper here
  • Hendrickson,J.R. 1966. Observations on the fauna of Pulau Tioman and Pulau Tulai. 5. The Reptiles. Bull. Nat. Mus. Singapore 34: 53-71
  • Hien,P. Grossmann,W. & Schäfer, C. 2001. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der landbewohnenden Reptilienfauna von Pulau Tioman, West-Malaysia. Sauria 23 (4): 11-28 - get paper here
  • Jayne, B.C., Voris, H.K. & Heang, K.B. 1988. Diet, feeding behavior, growth, and numbers of a population of Cerberus rynchops (Serpentes:Homalopsinae) in Malaysia. Fieldiana, Zoology, New Series, 50: 3–15 - get paper here
  • Jayne, B.C.; Voris, H.K.; Heang, K.B. 1987. Diet, Feeding beahvior, Growth, and Numbers of a Population of Cerbus rynchops (Serpentes: Homalopsinae) in Malaysia. Fieldiana: Zoology 50: 1-15 - get paper here
  • Karns,D.R.; O’Bannon,A.; Voris,H.K. & Weigt,L.A. 2000. Biogeographical implications of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Bockadam snake (Cerberus rynchops, Serpentes, Homalopsinae) in Southeast Asia. J. Biogeography 27: 391-402 - get paper here
  • Koch, André; Arida, Evy; Riyanto, Awal & Böhme, Wolfgang 2009. Islands between the realms: A revised checklist of the herpetofauna of the Talaud archipelago, Indonesia, with a discussion about its biogeographic affinities. Bonner zoologische Beiträge 56 (1/2): 107-129 [2007] - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de 2011. The Snakes of the Lesser Sunda Islands (Nusa Tenggara), Indonesia. Asian Herpetological Research 2 (1): 46-54 - get paper here
  • Lang, Ruud de & G. Vogel 2005. The snakes of Sulawesi. A field guide to the land snakes of Sulawesi with identification keys. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, 25, Frankfurt am Main, 312 pp.
  • Lim, K.K.P. & Ng, H.H. 1999. The terrestrial herpetofauna of Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia. Raffles Bull. Zool., Suppl. No. 6: 131-155 - get paper here
  • Manthey, U. & Grossmann, W. 1997. Amphibien & Reptilien Südostasiens. Natur und Tier Verlag (Münster), 512 pp. - get paper here
  • Mattison, Chris 2007. The New Encyclopedia of Snakes. Princeton University Press
  • Merrem, B. 1820. Versuch eines Systems der Amphibien I (Tentamen Systematis Amphibiorum). J. C. Kriegeri, Marburg, 191 pp. - get paper here
  • Mertens, R. 1930. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Inseln Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa und Flores. Senck. Naturf. Gesell., Frankfurt am Main, Abhandl. 42(3): 117-344.
  • Murphy, J.C. & Voris, H.K. 2014. A Checklist and Key to the Homalopsid Snakes (Reptilia, Squamata, Serpentes), with the Description of New Genera. FIELDIANA: LIFE AND EARTH SCIENCES (8): 1–43 - get paper here
  • Murphy, John C. 2007. Homalopsid Snakes: Evolution in the Mud. Krieger Publishing, Malabar, Florida, 249 pp.
  • Murthy, T.S.N. 2010. The reptile fauna of India. B.R. Publishing, New Delhi, 332 pp.
  • Nabhitabhata, J., T. Chan-ard and Y. Chuaynkern 2000. Checklist of Amphibians and Reptiles in Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bankok. 152pp.
  • Nguyen, S.V., Ho, C.T. and Nguyen, T.Q. 2009. Herpetofauna of Vietnam. Chimaira, Frankfurt, 768 pp.
  • O’SHEA, Mark; Caitlin SANCHEZ, Andrew KATHRINER, Sven MECKE, Venancio LOPES CARVALHO, Agivedo VARELA RIBEIRO, Zito AFRANIO SOARES, Luis LEMOS DE ARAUJO and Hinrich KAISER 2015. Herpetological Diversity of Timor-Leste: Updates and a Review of Species Distributions. Asian Herpetological Research 6 (2): 73–131 - get paper here
  • O’SHEA, Mark; Caitlin SANCHEZ, Scott HEACOX, Andrew KATHRINER, Venancio LOPES CARVALHO, Agivedo VARELA RIBEIRO, Zito AFRANIO SOARES, Luis LEMOS DE ARAUJO and Hinrich KAISER 2012. First Update to Herpetofaunal Records from Timor-Leste. Asian Herpetological Research 3 (2): 114–126 - get paper here
  • Palot, M.J. 2015. A checklist of reptiles of Kerala, India. Journal of Threatened Taxa 7(13): 8010–8022 - get paper here
  • Parmar, Dikansh 2019. A Dwarf Seasnake, Hydrophis caerulescens (Shaw 1802), Dog-faced Watersnake, Cerberus rynchops (Schneider 1799), and Little Filesnake, Acrochordus granulatus (Schneider 1799) from the Surat District, Gujarat, India. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 26 (2): 134–139 - get paper here
  • PATEL, AADIT & AUROBINDO SAMAL. 2022. A Dog-faced Water Snake, Cerberus rynchops (Schneider 1799), with a rubber-band around its body preying on a Bearded Mudskipper, Scartelaos histophorus (Oxudercinae), near Valsad, Gujarat, India. Reptiles & Amphibians 29(1): 119–120. - get paper here
  • Patel, Harshil; and Raju Vyas 2019. Reptiles of Gujarat, India: Updated Checklist, Distribution, and Conservation Status. Herpetology Notes 12: 765-777 - get paper here
  • Patel, Harshil; Raju Vyas, Vaibhav Naik, Bhautik Dudhatra & Shantilal K. Tank 2018. Herpetofauna of the Northern Western Ghats of Gujarat, India. Zoology and Ecology, DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2018.1499237 - get paper here
  • Pauwels, O.S.G.; David, P.; Chimsunchart, C. & Thirakhupt, K. 2003. Reptiles of Phetchaburi Province, Western Thailand: a list of species, with natural history notes, and a discussion on the biogeography at the Isthmus of Kra. Natural History Journal of Chulalongkorn University 3 (1): 23-53 - get paper here
  • Pauwels,O.S.G. et al. 2000. Herpetological investigations in Phang-Nga Province, southern Peninsular Thailand, with a list of reptile species and notes on their biology. Dumerilia 4 (2): 123-154 - get paper here
  • Rahman, Shahriar Caesar and Ahm Ali Reza. 2013. Algal fouling on dog-faced water snake (Cerberus rynchops, Serpentes: Homalopsidae). Herpetology Notes 6: 373-374
  • Rahman, Shahriar Caesar; Reza, Ahm Ali; Datta, Rupa; Jenkins, Chris L.; Luiselli, Luca 2014. Niche partitioning and population structure of sympatric mud snakes (Homalopsidae) from Bangladesh. The Herpetological Journal 24 (2): 123-128 - get paper here
  • Rasmussen, AR; Murphy, JC; Ompi M; Gibbons JW; Uetz P. 2011. Marine reptiles. PLoS One 6 (11): e27373. - get paper here
  • Russell, P. 1796. An account of Indian serpents collected on the coast of Coromandel, containing descriptions and drawings of each species, together with experiments and remarks on their several poisons. George Nicol, London, 90 pp. - get paper here
  • Schlegel, H. 1837. Essai sur la physionomie des serpens. Partie Descriptive. La Haye (J. Kips, J. HZ. et W. P. van Stockum), 606 S. + xvi - get paper here
  • Schneider, J. G. 1799. Historiae Amphibiorum narturalis et literariae. Fasciculus primus, continens Ranas. Calamitas, Bufones, Salamandras et Hydros. Frommanni, Jena, 266 S. - get paper here
  • Schneider, JOHANN GOTTLOB 1801. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus secundus continens Crocodilos, Scincos, Chamaesauras, Boas. Pseudoboas, Elapes, Angues. Amphisbaenas et Caecilias. Frommanni, Jena. 374 pp. - get paper here
  • Sharma, R. C. 2004. Handbook Indian Snakes. AKHIL BOOKS, New Delhi, 292 pp.
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615 - get paper here
  • Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, Including the Whole of the Indo-Chinese Sub-Region. Reptilia and Amphibia. 3 (Serpentes). Taylor and Francis, London. 583 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1910. The batrachians and reptiles of Formosa. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 38: 91-114 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Stoliczka, F. 1870. Observations on some Indian and Malayan Amphibia and Reptilia. J. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 39: 134-228. - get paper here
  • Stuebing, R.B., Inger, R.F. & Lardner, B. 2014. A field guide to the snakes of Borneo, second edition. Natural history Publications (Borneo)
  • Taylor,E.H. 1965. The serpents of Thailand and adjacent waters. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 45 (9): 609-1096 - get paper here
  • TEYNIÉ, ALEXANDRE; PATRICK DAVID, & ANNEMARIE OHLER 2010. Note on a collection of Amphibians and Reptiles from Western Sumatra (Indonesia), with the description of a new species of the genus Bufo. Zootaxa 2416: 1–43 - get paper here
  • Thongboon, L., Senarat, ., Kettratad, J., Jiraungkoorskul, W., Pengsakul, T., Wangkulangkul, S. Uribe, M. C., Plumley, F. G., Wongkamhaeng, K. and Kaneko, G. 2020. Morphology and histology of female reproductive tract of the dog-faced water snake Cerberus rynchops (Schneider, 1799). Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology 14: 11-26.
  • Vijayakumar, S. P. and Patrick David 2006. Taxonomy, Natural History, and Distribution of the Snakes of the Nicobar Islands (INDIA), based on new materials and with an Emphasis on endemic species. Russ. J. Herpetol. 13 (1): 11 – 40
  • Visvanathan, A., Anne, S., Kolli, A. K., & Vangari, S. M. 2022. Snakes of Telangana: An annotated checklist with new locality records and notes on natural history. Reptiles & Amphibians, 29(1), 279-285 - get paper here
  • Voris, H.K. & Murphy, J.C. 2002. The prey and predators of homalopsine snakes. Journal of Natural History, 36, 1621–1632 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2007. Present conservation scenario of reptile fauna in Gujarat State, India. Indian Forester, Oct 2007: 1381-1394 - get paper here
  • Vyas, Raju 2013. Snake diversity and voluntary rescue practice in the cities of Gujarat State, India: an evaluation. Reptile Rap (15): 27-39 - get paper here
  • Wall, F. 1905. Notes on Snakes collected in Cannanore from 5th November 1903 to 5th August 1904. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 16: 292 - get paper here
  • Wall, FRANK 1921. Ophidia Taprobanica or the Snakes of Ceylon. Colombo Mus. (H. R. Cottle, govt. printer), Colombo. xxii, 581 pages - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Weinstein, Scott A. 2017. Non-Front-Fanged Colubroid Snakes. In: J. Brent et al. (eds.), Critical Care Toxicology. Springer Verlag, pp. 2453-2492 - get paper here
  • Whitaker, Romulus and Ashok Captain 2004. Snakes of India. Draco Books, 500 pp., reprinted 2007 - get paper here
  • Zakaria, N., Allahudin, M. I. H., Ma'ad, S. N. S., Sulaiman, A. A., Abdullah, N. A., Zamri, M. I. M., ... & Deraman, M. Y. 2022. Diversity amphibians and reptiles at Sungai Kerteh mangrove forest, Terengganu, Malaysia. Biodiversitas Journal of Biological Diversity, 23(11)
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator