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Cercosaura eigenmanni (GRIFFIN, 1917)

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Higher TaxaGymnophthalmidae (Cercosaurinae), Sauria, Gymnophthalmoidea, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Eigenmann's Cercosaura
Portuguese: Calango-da-Máscara-Branca, Calanguinho-de-Máscara, Lagartinho-de-Máscara, Lagartinho-de-Máscara-Branca, Lagarto-do-Folhiço 
SynonymPrionodactylus eigenmanni GRIFFIN 1917: 316
Prionodactylus eigenmanni — PETERS et al. 1970: 235
Prionodactylus eigenmanni — AVILA-PIRES 1995: 463
Prionodactylus eigenmanni — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Cercosaura eigenmanni — DOAN 2003
Prionodactylus eigenmanni — MORAVEC & APARICIO 2005
Cersosaura eigeinmanni — SILVA-ARAÚJO et al. 2020 (in error) 
DistributionBolivia (Beni, Pando, Santa Cruz), Brazil (Rondonia, Mato Grosso, Acre, Amazonas), Peru

Elevation: 200–700 m (DOAN & LAMAR 2012).

Type locality: Provincia del Sara, Bolivia.  
TypesHolotype: CM 981 
DiagnosisDiagnosis. Frontonasal single. Loreal in contact with supralabials. Scales around midbody 26-32, transverse rows of dorsals 31-36. Males with 6-7 femoral pores, absent in females. Subdigital lamellae with single and double tubercles, 12-15 under fourth toe. Sides of head brown, with white vertical bars across labials (from Avila-Pires 1995: 464).

Description. Gymnophthalmid with maximum SVL in males of 44 mm (MPEG 14068), in females of 47 mm (MPEG 14848). Head 0.24-0.28 (n= 26) times SVL, relatively longer in juveniles, 1.5-1.7 (1.62 ± 0.07, n= 25) times as long as wide, 1.1-1.6 (1.33 ± 0.11, n= 24) times as wide as high. Snout blunt, sloping gently toward top of head. Neck slightly narrower than head and body. Body cylindrical to slightly depressed. Limbs well developed, forelimbs 0.33-0.39 (0.34 ± 0.01, n= 25) times SVL, hind limbs 0.43-0.51 (0.47 ± 0.02, n= 25) times. Tail round in cross section, tapering toward tip, 1.14-1.35 (n= 14) times SVL (mostly around 1.3 times SVL, 1.1-1.2 times SVL in some of the smallest specimens).
Tongue lanceolate, covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae, with a smooth, bifid tip. Anterior teeth conical, posterior teeth bicuspid and tricuspid.
Rostral hexagonal, about three times as wide as long, visible from above. Frontonasal single, pentagonal, laterally in contact with nasal, in some specimens touching loreal (RMNH 25691). Prefrontals quadrilateral or pentagonal, with a moderately long medial suture, laterally in contact with loreal, first supraciliary, and mostly also with nasal and first supraocular. Frontal hexagonal (octagonal in RMNH 25691, where sutures with first and second supraoculars are not straight but form a wide angle), distinctly longer than wide and widest anteriorly; laterally in contact with first and second supraoculars, in MPEG 14074 also touching first supraciliary. Frontoparietals pentagonal, longer than wide, with a long medial suture; laterally in contact with second and third supraoculars (in MPEG 13918 the two frontoparietals are irregularly divided, one frontoparietal forming a small, extra scale anteriorly, and the other frontoparietal a larger, extra scale posteriorly). Interparietal heptagonal, in some specimens borders with occipitals more rounded; longer than wide, lateral borders from parallel to slightly divergent posteriorly. One parietal on each side of interparietal, irregularly polygonal, shorter and wider than interparietal. Three occipitals, median one pentagonal, behind interparietal; lateral ones irregularly polygonal, each bordering interparietal and one parietal. Three supraoculars, first largest. Four, exceptionally five, supraciliaries, first expanded dorsally. Nasal undivided, nostril just anterior to its middle, directed latero-posteriorly. Loreal and frenocular relatively large, both in contact with supralabials. One or two preoculars (separated from supralabials by frenocular), followed by three (mostly) or four suboculars, posterior one highest. Two to four, mostly three, postoculars, upper one in contact with third supraocular and parietal; lower postocular may form a short suture with supralabials. Lower eyelid with undivided semitransparent disc. Supralabials and postsupralabials form a continuous series of seven (mostly) or eight scales, fourth, or rarely fifth, below centre of eye. Temporal scales irregularly polygonal, smooth, juxtaposed; relatively small in lower temporal area, much larger in upper part. Ear-opening moderately large, vertically oval, anterior margin finely lobed, posterior margin smooth. Tympanum recessed within a relatively short external auditory meatus.
Mental approximately semicircular. Postmental undivided, heptagonal. Four pairs of chinshields, all in contact with infralabials; medially, first and second pairs in contact, third pair separated either by a pair of moderately enlarged scales, or by two or more smaller scales. Fourth pair of chinshields separated by a pair of scales larger than themselves, plus one or more small scales medially. Relatively small scales border chin posteriorly; among these, a pair of moderately enlarged scales may be present posterior to the large pair of scales medial to fourth chinshields. Five infralabials, fourth below centre of eye; followedby one to three, mostly two, postinfralabials. All head scales smooth, juxtaposed.
Nape with a row of four roughly squared, smooth scales bordering occipitals, followed by smaller, imbricate scales, anteriorly squarish, smooth, posteriad grading into dorsals. Scales on sides of neck relatively small, roundish to squarish, smooth, subimbricate. Gular region with 9-11 transversely enlarged pairs ofsmooth, imbricate scales, of which those of first to fourth anterior pairs may be separated by smaller scales; toward the sides scales smaller, roundish. Collar distinct, with median pair of scales larger than in other rows of gulars. Gular fold distinct.
Dorsals elongate-hexagonal, keeled, imbricate, in 31-36 (33.7 ± 1.2, n= 26) transverse rows, and 10-13 scales in a transverse row at midbody. Scales on flanks smaller, rounded or squarish, imbricate, in approximately transverse rows; all smooth, or upper ones weakly keeled. Most transverse rows of dorsals correspond to two rows of laterals, some to one and a bit. Ventrals smooth, shortly imbricate, in six longitudinal and 16-19 (17.4 ± 0.8, n= 26) transverse rows. Ventrals in median four rows squared, from as wide as long to slightly wider than long; those in lateral rows usually narrower, with lateral and posterior borders rounded. Scales around midbody 26-32 (29.5 ± 1.5, n= 24). Dorsals, scales on flanks, and ventrals relatively well delimited from each other. Preanal plate with two large scales, bordered anteriorly by two much smaller scales. Preanal pores absent. Femoral pores 6-7 per side in males, absent in females. Each pore enclosed in a single scale.
Scales on dorsal and lateral surfaces of tail, proximally elongate-hexagonal, keeled; distally they become smooth, posterior margin rounded. Scales on ventral surface of tail squared, smooth, in longitudinal rows. A l l scales imbricate, forming continuous transverse rows around tail.
Scales on forelimbs mostly imbricate, smooth, posterior margin ellipsoid, or squarish, variable in size; distinctly smaller, roundish, slightly convex on ventral aspect of upper arms, and on part of anterior aspect of forearms. Hind limbs with a row of large, trapezoidal, smooth, imbricate scales along anterior aspect of thighs, and along ventral aspect of lower legs; both bordered by relatively large, smooth, imbricate, posteriorly ellipsoid scales. Dorso-posterior and posterior aspects of thighs with granular scales. Dorsal aspect of lower legs with relatively small, sub-rhomboid, smooth scales, which touch, at both sides, the larger, posteriorly ellipsoid scales. Subdigital lamellae with alternating single and double tubercles under each finger or toe, except distally where lamellae are single, not tuberculate; 9-11 (9.9 ± 0.5, n= 50, 26 specimens) under fourth finger, 12-15 (13.5 ± 1.0, n= 52, 26 specimens) under fourth toe (from Avila-Pires 1995: 464).

Coloration; Colour in life of RMNH 25691 (female) hair-brown (119A) on back, with cream (54) spots on neck; chin white, belly cream (54), underside of tail salmon (106); tip of tongue black, base white (field notes M.S. Hoogmoed). Individuals from Rondonia brown dorsally with a lateral white stripe, venter usually white or cream; tongue white on its base (which does not appear when the animal protracts its tongue), black medially, tip white. MPEG 14068, the largest male seen (44 mm SVL), was pale orange ventrolaterally, which suggests that adult males may acquire an orange belly as occurs with other gymnophthalmids (from Avila-Pires 1995: 466). 
EtymologyNamed after Professor Dr. Carl Henry Eigenmann (1863-1927), German-born American ichthyologist. He was Curator, San Diego Natural History Society (1888), then became Professor of Zoology, Indiana University (1891). 
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