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Cerrophidion wilsoni JADIN, TOWNSEND, CASTOE & CAMPBELL, 2012

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Higher TaxaViperidae, Crotalinae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Honduras Montane Pitviper 
SynonymCerrophidion wilsoni JADIN, TOWNSEND, CASTOE & CAMPBELL 2012
Cerrophidion wilsoni — WALLACH et al. 2014: 157 
DistributionHonduras (Olancho), El Salvador, Nicaragua

Type locality: Cerro Azul, Parque Nacional Montaña de Botaderos, Departamento de Olancho, Honduras, 15.37831°N, 86.14200°W, elevation 1420 m.  
TypesHolotype: UTA R-52953; an adult female, Amphibian and Reptile Diversity Research Center, University of Texas at Arlington, collected on 1 February 2005 at 1530 h by E. N. Smith (original number ENS 10860). Paratypes (8). UTA R-59478, adult male, from Reserva Biologíca Güisayote, Departamento de Ocotepeque, Honduras, 14.4386°N ⁄ 89.0624°W, 2195 m elevation. UTA R-59479, subadult female, from Cataguana, Parque Nacional Montaña de Yoro, Departamento de Francisco Moraza ́n, Honduras, 15.0198°N ⁄ 87.1221°W, 1910 m elevation. UTA R-59480, a juvenile, from 3.45 km NNE of La Fortuna, Reserva de Vida Silvestre Texı ́guat, Departamento de Yoro, Honduras, 15.4451°N ⁄ 87.3046°W, 1885 m,collected on 10 April 2008 by J. M. Butler, L. Ketzler, J. Slapcinsky, N. M. Stewart, J. H. Townsend and L. D. Wilson. USNM 578908, adult female from Los Tres Cerritos, Parque Nacional Sierra de Agalta, Departamento de Olancho, Honduras, 14.9106°N⁄86.0126°W, 1690 m, collected 2 January 2011 by M. Medina-Flores and O. Reyes-Caldero ́n. UF 147610–11, adult males from Quebrada Cantiles, Parque Nacional Cusuco, Departamento de Corte ́s, Honduras, 15.5111°N ⁄ 88.2448°W, 1760 m, collected 13 and 14 March 2006 by J. H. Townsend and L. D. Wilson. KU 291242, adult female from Cerro El Pital, Departamento de Chalatenango, El Salvador, 14.3878°N ⁄ 89.1167°W, 2485 m, collected on 16 May 2001 by R. Gregorio, R. Bolanos, O. Komar and K. Gomez. KU 289801, adult gravid female from Cerro Montecristo, Parque Nacional Montecristo, Departamento de Santa Ana, El Salvador, 14.4011°N ⁄ 89.3617°W, 2200 m, collected on 15 July 2000 by E. Greenbaum and J. Porras. 
DiagnosisDefinition and diagnosis. Similar to other Cerrophidion species, C. wilsoni is a medium-sized, blotched terrestrial pitviper; head relatively long; distinct and raised canthal ridge, typically two canthals; a frontal plate; broad supraoculars; nasal divided; prefoveals 1–4; prelacunal single; lacunolabials absent; loreal single; subfoveals 0–2; three preoculars; supralabials 7–11, typically 9; infralabials 10– 12, typically 11; ventrals 137–151 (x = 142.21), undivided subcaudals 23–36 (x = 30.12) with no significant sexual dimorphism; cloacal scute undivided; tail relatively short and non-prehensile; and typically 21 middorsal scale rows. Cerrophidion wilsoni differs from other Cerrophidion species in normally having fewer scales that contact the supraoculars, averaging 9 compared to 10–12 in other Cerrophidion species (Jadin 2010). Additionally, the median frontal scale of C. wilsoni is often quite small, distinguishing it from other Cerrophidion species, and in many individuals the frontal scale is greatly reduced to the size of a normal head scale (Campbell & Solórzano 1992). In those individ- uals that contain a small frontal plate, this plate occupies an average of 36% of the distance between the supraoculars (Campbell & Solo ́rzano 1992) [from JADIN et al. 2012].

Similar species. Several other species of pitviper are sym- patric with C. wilsoni at various localities in Honduras. The palm-pitviper Bothriechis marchi is sympatric with C. wilsoni in Parque Nacional Cusuco in the Sierra de Omoa in northwestern Honduras, and C. wilsoni is sym- patric or nearly sympatric with Atropoides mexicanus and Bothrops asper along the lower edges of the cloud forest (Townsend & Wilson 2008), a situation mirrored with the same four species in Reserva de Vida Silvestre Texı ́g- uat in north-central Honduras (Townsend et al. 2012). There may also be sympatric or near-sympatric popula- tions of Bothriechis thalassinus and C. wilsoni in the vicinity of the shared border between Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. These species are easily distinguished from C. wilsoni by the following characteristics: Bothriechis species have prehensile tails, are typically slender and are mostly green, except certain colour variations in B. schlegelii. The species most closely resembling C. wilsoni are certain pop- ulations of A. indomitus and A. mexicanus but they have broader heads, more numerous distinctly tuberculate sup- racephalic scales, a narrower and longer dark postocular stripe, nasorostrals present and a much stockier body shape [from JADIN et al. 2012]. 
CommentSynonymy: McCranie (2009, 2011), Townsend and Wilson (2010), and Wilson and Johnson (2010) allocated the Honduran material of this species to C. godmani; Jadin et al. (2012), however, assigned it to a new species and restricted the application of the name C. godmani to populations in Mexico. 
EtymologyThe specific epithet is a patronym honouring Larry David Wilson. We are pleased to name this species in honour of him, in recognition of his career-long contri- butions to Mesoamerican herpetology. His work in Cen- tral America began with his first trip to Mexico in 1966 and has resulted in numerous contributions, including two volumes of the book Snakes of Honduras (Wilson & Meyer 1982, 1985), numerous other books on regional herpetology (e.g., McCranie & Wilson 2002; Townsend & Wilson 2008), and most recently leading efforts to compile the seminal volume Conservation of Mesoamerican Amphibians and Reptiles (Wilson et al. 2010). He has described over 70 species of Middle American amphibians and reptiles and worked on a broad range of questions in snake systematics [from JADIN et al. 2012]. 
  • Fernández, M., J. G. Martínez-Fonseca, M. Salazar-Saavedra, L. Gutiérrez, J. Loza and J. Sunyer. 2017. First verified record of Cerrophidion wilsoni (Reptilia: Squamata: Viperidae) from Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(2): 481–484 - get paper here
  • Jadin, R.C., Townsend, J.H., Castoe, T.A. & Campbell, J.A. 2012. Cryptic diversity in disjunct populations of Middle American Montane Pitvipers: a systematic reassessment of Cerrophidion godmani. Zoologica Scripta doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00547.x - get paper here
  • McCranie, James R. 2015. A checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with additions, comments on taxonomy, some recent taxonomic decisions, and areas of further studies needed. Zootaxa 3931 (3): 352–386 - get paper here
  • Solís, José Mario; Rony E. Valle, Luis A. Herrera, Carlos M. O’Reilly, and Roberto Downing. 2015. Range extensions and new departmental records for amphibians and reptiles in Honduras. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (4): 557 - get paper here
  • Solís, J. M., L. D. Wilson, and J. H. Townsend. 2014. An updated list of the amphibians and reptiles of Honduras, with comments on their nomenclature. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1: 123–144 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, J. C. Jirón, A. A. Acosta Antón, and A. A. Gutiérrez Rodríguez. 2017. Cerrophidion wilsoni Jadin, Townsend, Castoe, and Campbell, 2012. Nicaragua, Nueva Segovia, Jinotega. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 967–969 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
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