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Chalarodon madagascariensis (PETERS, 1854)

IUCN Red List - Chalarodon madagascariensis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaOpluridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Madagascar iguana
G: Madagaskar-Sandleguan 
SynonymTropidogaster Blainvillii DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 330
Ptychosaurus (Tritropis) Blainvillii — FITZINGER 1843: 59
Chalarodon madagascariensis PETERS 1854: 616
Chalarodon madagascariensis — BOULENGER 1885: 128
Tropidurus ? blainvillii — BOULENGER 1885: 178
Tropidurus blainvillii — BURT & BURT 1933:45
Chalarodon madagascariensis — ANGEL 1942: 89
Chalarodon madagascariensis — BLANC 1977: 59
Chalarodon madagascariensis — GLAW & VENCES 1994: 258
Chalarodon madagascariensis — SCHLÜTER 2013 
DistributionSW Madagascar (arid and semiarid regions, throughout most of Tuléar Province, extending into SW Fianarantsoa and extreme SW Majunga Provinces).

Type locality: Madagascar (St. Augustins Bay) [PETERS 1854]  
TypesLectotype: ZMB 4360 (designated by Miralles et al. 2015); Syntypes: ZMB 4360 (2), 5617, 9214) (2) (PETERS 1854), MNHN-RA 270, BMNH; note that one of the two specimens with the number ZMB 4360 was renumbered to ZMB 69147, one of the two specimens with the number ZMB 9214 was renumbered to ZMB 69144, and the formerly overlooked skeleton ZMB 13569 was identified as an additional syntype, whereas ZMB 5617 is currently missing from the collection (F. Tillack, pers. comm. 27. Jan. 2015, cited in Miralles et al. 2015). One syntype has been exchanged with the Muséum nationale d'Histoire naturelle at Paris and now bears the number MNHN 270 (see Brygoo 1989). 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): Chalarodon madagascariensis can be easily differentiated from Oplurus by its smaller size, longitudinal dorsal crest (especially marked in sexually mature males) running from the occipital region to the mid-length of the tail, and absence of enlarged spiny scale rows on tail (Blanc 1977; Glaw & Vences 2007). 
CommentSynonymy: The names Tropidogaster Blainvillii Duméril & Bibron 1837 and Ptychosaurus (Tritropis) Blainvillii — Fitzinger 1843 have been declared invalid (Official Index Op. 955, 1971).

Type species: Chalarodon madagascariensis PETERS 1854 is the type species of the genus Chalarodon PETERS 1854.

Habitat: Chalarodon madagascariensis is a terrestrial species commonly observed on the sandy soils of forested or bushy areas of the sub-arid to semi-arid southern and western regions of Madagascar (Blanc 1969, 1970).

Phylogenetics: The molecular phylogeny of Münchenberg et al. (2008) retrieved the two genera Oplurus and Chalarodon as reciprocally monophyletic, with good support for Chalarodon but weak support for the genus Oplurus, whereas Pyron et al. (2013) recovered Oplurus as paraphyletic with respect to Chalarodon. 
  • Altmanová, Marie; Michail Rovatsos, Lukáš Kratochvíl, andMartina Johnson Pokorná 2016. Minute Y chromosomes and karyotype evolution in Madagascan iguanas (Squamata: Iguania: Opluridae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, DOI: 10.1111/bij.12751 - get paper here
  • Angel, F. 1942. Les Lézards de Madagascar. Mem. Acad. Malagache, Tananarive XXXVI: 193 pp.
  • Avery, D. F.; Tanner, W. W. 1971. Evolution of the iguanine lizards (Sauria, Iguanidae) as determined by osteological and myological characters. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin 12 (3): 1-79
  • Barbour, Thomas 1918. Vertebrata from Madagascar. 2. Amphibia and Reptilia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 61 (14): 479-489. - get paper here
  • Barkam, L. 2004. Das Leguanportrait: Chalarodon madagascariensis (PETERS 1854). Iguana Rundschreiben 17 (1): 7-9
  • Blanc, C. P. 1969. Etudes sur les Iguanidae de Madagascar II. Observations sur l'écologie de Chalarodon madagascariensis. Oecologia (Berl.) 2: 292-318 - get paper here
  • Blanc, C. P. 1977. Reptiles sauriens Iguanidae. Faune de Madagascar 45: 1-195
  • Blanc, C.P. 1970. Analyse des facteurs de l'environnement dans l'aire de répartition de Chalarodon madagascariensis; leurs implications biologiques. Annales Université Madagasca (Sciences), 7: 279–306
  • Blanc, C.P. & C.C. Carpenter 1969. Studies on the Iguanidae of Madagascar III. Social and Reproductive Behavior of Chalarodon madagascariensis Journal of Herpetology 3 (3/4): 125-134. - get paper here
  • Blanc, Charles-P. 1965. Études sur les Iguanidae de Madagascar I. Le squelette de Chalarodon madagascariensis Peters, 1854. Mémoirs du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle 33 (3): 93-146
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt & Burt 1933. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis, 271: 45
  • Cocca, W., G. M. Rosa, F. Andreone, G. Aprea, P. E. Bergò, F. Mattioli, V. Mercurio, J. E. Randrianirina, D. Rosado, M. Vences & A. Crottini 2018. The herpetofauna (Amphibia, Crocodylia, Squamata, Testudines) of the Isalo Massif, Southwest Madagascar: combining morphological, molecular and museum data. Salamandra 54 (3): 178-200 plus Supplementary Material - get paper here
  • D'Cruze, Neil; Annette Olsonn, David Henson, Sunil Kumar, and David Emmett. 2009. The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Lower Onilahy River Valley, a Temporary Protected Area in Southwest Madagascar. Herp. Cons. Biol. 4: 62-79 - get paper here
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1837. Erpétologie Générale ou Histoire Naturelle Complete des Reptiles. Vol. 4. Libr. Encyclopédique Roret, Paris, 570 pp. - get paper here
  • Etheridge, R. 1965. The abdominal skeleton of lizards in the family Iguanidae. Herpetologica 21: 161-168 - get paper here
  • Etheridge, Richard 1969. Tropidogaster blainvillii Duméril & Bibron, 1837 (Reptilia, Sauria): Proposed suppression under the plenary powers. z.n.(s.) 1860. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 25 (6): 224-226 - get paper here
  • Fitzinger, L. 1843. Systema Reptilium, fasciculus primus, Amblyglossae. Braumüller et Seidel, Wien: 106 pp. - get paper here
  • Gardner, Charlie and Louise Jasper. 2012. Cannibalism in Chalarodon madagascariensis (Squamata: Iguanidae) from southwest Madagascar. Herpetology Notes 6: 127-128.
  • Glaw ,F. & Vences, M. 1994. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Köln (ISBN 3-929449-01-3)
  • Grubenmann, M. 2006. Madagaskar-Leguane - Teil 1. Iguana Rundschreiben 19 (1): 4-8
  • Hertwig, K. & Blohm, M. 2007. Beobachtungen zur Haltung und erste Erfolge bei der Vermehrung von Chalarodon madagascariensis PETERS 1854. Elaphe 15 (4): 31-40
  • Meier,H. 1982. Leguane aus Madagaskar. Herpetofauna 4 (17): 22-27 [erratum in 4 (18): 33] - get paper here
  • MIRALLES, AURELIEN; FRANK GLAW, FANOMEZANA M. RATSOAVINA, & MIGUEL VENCES 2015. A likely microendemic new species of terrestrial iguana, genus Chalarodon, from Madagascar. Zootaxa 3946 (2): 201–220 - get paper here
  • Münchenberg, Tobias, Katharina C. Wollenberg, Frank Glaw and Miguel Vences. 2008. Molecular phylogeny and geographic variation of Malagasy iguanas (Oplurus and Chalarodon). Amphibia- Reptilia 29(3):319-327
  • Peters,W.C.H. 1854. Diagnosen neuer Batrachier, welche zusammen mit der früher (24. Juli und 17. August) gegebenen Übersicht der Schlangen und Eidechsen mitgetheilt werden. Ber. Bekanntmach. Geeignet. Verhandl. Königl.-Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1854: 614-628
  • Schlüter, Uwe 2013. Madagaskarleguane - Lebensweise, Pflege und Fortpflanzung. KUS-Verlag, 88 pp. - get paper here
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