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Chelodina rugosa OGILBY, 1889

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Higher TaxaChelidae, Chelodininae, Pleurodira, Testudines (turtles)
Common NamesNorth Australian Snake-necked Turtle (siebenorcki: Siebenrock’s Snake-necked Turtle; oblonga: Narrow-breasted Snake-necked Turtle) 
SynonymChelodina rugosa OGILBY 1889
Chelodina rugosa OGILBY 1890: 56
Chelodina siebenrocki WERNER 1901
Chelodina oblonga — SIEBENROCK 1905
Chelodina intergularis FRY 1915
Chelodina siebenrocki — DE ROOIJ 1915: 316
Chelodina rugosa — WERMUTH & MERTENS 1977
Chelodina billabong — WELLS & WELLINGTON 1985 (nomen nudum)
Chelodina siebenrocki — ALDERTON 1988
Chelodina rugosa — ERNST & BARBOUR 1989
Chelodina rugosa — COGGER 2000: 192
Chelodina oblonga — COGGER 2000: 192
Chelodina siebenrocki — ISKANDAR & ERDELEN 2006
Chelodina rugosa — BONIN et al 2006
Chelodina siebenrocki — BONIN et al 2006
Macrochelodina rugosa — FRITZ & HAVAS 2007
Chelodina rugosa — ALACS et al. 2009
Chelodina (Macrochelodina) rugosa — GEORGES & THOMSON 2010
Chelodina oblonga — WILSOIN & SWAN 2010
Chelodina siebenrocki — AUER 2011
Chelodina (Macrochelodina) oblonga — TTWG 2014
Chelodina rugosa — KEHLMAIER et al. 2019
Chelodina (Chelydera) rugosa — SHEA et al. 2020
Chelodina rugosa — TTWG 2021 
DistributionN Australia (from the Cape York Peninsula westward to the Kimberley District of W Australia; Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia)

Type locality: Cape York, Qld.

oblonga: SW-W Australia; Type locality: Western Australia.

siebenrocki: New Guinea (southern coast west of the Fly River, certain islands in the Torres Strait); type locality; Papua New Guinea.  
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1947.3.5.89 (formerly; MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI (2007) designate Gray’s 1856 C. colliei lectotype (THOMSON, 2000; BMNH 1947.3.5.91) as the neotype of C. oblonga. However, McCord and Joseph-Ouni’s (2007) neotype designation for C. oblonga is invalid under the ICZN Code (see discussion in KUCHLING 2010) 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (of Macrochelodina): “Macrochelodina is differentiated by having a generally broader head, a longer thicker neck with less obvious tubercles, and a narrower plastron” (fide MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2007; note that this is a pretty useless diagnosis, P.U.). 
CommentSynonymy mostly after GEORGES & THOMSON 2010 and S. Thomson, pers. comm., 27 May 2021. Kehlmair et al. 2019 determined that Chelodina oblonga is a nomen dubium and thus Chelodina rugosa is the correct name. However, Shea et al. resurrected C. oblonga, see that entry.

Type species: Chelodina oblonga is the type species of the genus Macrochelodina Wells and Wellington, 1985. Chelodina oblonga is also the type species of the genus Macrodiremys MCCORD & JOSEPH-OUNI 2007. Macrodiremys is a synonym of Macrochelodina, fide Shea et al. 2020.

Types: Note that FRITZ (2008) rejected the lectotype designation of Chelodina oblonga by McCord & Joseph-Ouni (2007) as invalid. See Kuchling (2010) for a more detailed discussion.

Habitat: freshwater (rivers, swamps) 
  • ALACS, E.A.; M. J. HILLYER, A. GEORGES, N. N. FITZSIMMONS and J. M. HUGHES 2009. Development of microsatellite markers in the Australasian snake-necked turtle Chelodina rugusa [sic] and cross-species amplification. Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 350–353 - get paper here
  • Alderton, D. 1988. Turtles and tortoises of the world. Facts on File, New York.
  • Auer, Markus 2011. Beobachtungen zu Vorkommen und Handel von Schildkröten in Nordlaos. Sauria, Berlin 33 (1): 3-11 - get paper here
  • Bonin, F., Devaux, B. & Dupré, A. 2006. Turtles of the World. English translation by P.C.H. Pritchard. Johns Hopkins University Press, 416 pp.
  • Bour, R. 2008. Global diversity of turtles (Chelonii; Reptilia) in freshwater. Hydrobiologia 595:593–598 - get paper here
  • Cann, John 1997. Kuchlings long-neck turtle, Chelodina kuchlingi sp. nov. Monitor: Journal of the Victorian Herpetological Society 9 (1): 41-44.
  • Cann, John 1998. Australian Freshwater Turtles. Beaumont Publishing, Singapore: 292 pp.
  • Cogger, H. G. 2014. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 7th ed. CSIRO Publishing, xxx + 1033 pp. - get paper here
  • Cogger, H.G. 2000. Reptiles and Amphibians of Australia, 6th ed. Ralph Curtis Publishing, Sanibel Island, 808 pp.
  • de Rooij, N. de 1915. The Reptiles of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. I. Lacertilia, Chelonia, Emydosauria. Leiden (E. J. Brill), xiv + 384 pp. - get paper here
  • Ernst,C.H. and Barbour,R.W. 1989. Turtles of the World. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. - London
  • Escoriza Boj, D. 2005. Australia. Reptiles and Amphibians, Part 1: Rainforest. Reptilia (GB) (40): 70-75 - get paper here
  • Fritz, U. 2008. Comment on the proposed precedence of Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines) over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841 (Case 3351; see BZN 63: 187–193, 64: 68, 127–128). Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 65 (1): - get paper here
  • Fry, Dene B. 1915. On a new Chelodina from Australia, with a key to the genus. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 27: 88–90. - get paper here
  • Gaffney, Eugene S. 1977. The side-necked turtle family Chelidae: a theory of relationships using shared derived characters. American Museum Novitates (2620): 1-28 - get paper here
  • Georges, A. & Thomson, S. 2010. Diversity of Australasian freshwater turtles, with an annotated synonymy and keys to species. Zootaxa 2496: 1–37 - get paper here
  • Georges, A.; J. Birrell, K. M. Saint, W. McCord und S. C. Donnellan 1998. A phylogeny for side-necked turtles (Chelonia: Pleurodira) based on mitochondrial and nuclear gene sequence variation. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 67: 213-246 [1999] - get paper here
  • Georges, Arthur, Carla Eisemberg, Yolarnie Amepou and Eric Manasi. 2014. Turtle conservation challenges in papua New Guinea. Turtle Survival 2014: 22-24 - get paper here
  • Grace, J. 1997. Captive breeding of the Black-headed python, Aspidites melanocephalus. Monitor: Journal of the Victorian Herpetological Society. 9 (1): 8-9
  • Gray, J.E. 1841. A catalogue of the species of reptiles and Amphibia hitherto described as inhabiting Australia, with a description of some new species from Western Australia. Appendix E, pp. 422-449. In: G. Grey, Journals of Two Expeditions of Discovery in Northwest T. and W. Boone, London. Vol. 2: 422-449 + plates - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1856. On some new species freshwater tortoises from North America, Ceylon and Australia. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 18: 263-268 - get paper here
  • ICZN 2013. OPINION 2315 (Case 3351) Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines): precedence not granted over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 70 (1): 57-60 - get paper here
  • Iskandar, Djoko T. and Walter R. Erdelen 2006. Conservation of amphibians and reptiles in Indonesia: issues and problems. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 4 (1): 60-87 - get paper here
  • Iverson, John B., Scott A. Thomson and Arthur Georges 2001. Validity of taxonomic changes for turtles proposed by Wells and Wellington. Journal of Herpetology 35 (3): 361-368 - get paper here
  • Kehlmaier, C., Zhang, X., Georges, A., Campbell, P. D., Thomson, S., & Fritz, U. 2019. Mitogenomics of historical type specimens of Australasian turtles: clarification of taxonomic confusion and old mitochondrial introgression. Scientific Reports, 9(1): 5841 - get paper here
  • Kennett, R. 1996. Growth Models for Two Species of Freshwater Turtle, Chelodina rugosa and Elseya dentata, from the Wet-Dry Tropics of Northern Australia Herpetologica 52 (3): 383-395. - get paper here
  • Kennett, R. & O. Tory 1996. Diet of two freshwater turtles, Chelodina rugosa and Elseya dentata (Testudines: Cheliidae) from the West-Dry Tropics of Northern Australia Copeia 1996 (2): 409-419. - get paper here
  • Kuchling, G. 2010. Taxonomy and nomenclature of the longneck turtle (genus Chelodina) from south-western Australia. Rec. West. Austr. Mus. 25 (4): 449–454 - get paper here
  • Kuchling, Gerald 2013. A turtle trying to keep its head above water in the Land Down Under. The Tortoise 1 (2): 98-107.
  • Mazzoleni, Sofia; Barbora Augstenová, Lorenzo Clemente, Markus Auer, Uwe Fritz, Peter Praschag, Tomáš Protiva, Petr Velenský, Lukáš Kratochvíl & Michail Rovatsos 2020. Sex is determined by XX/XY sex chromosomes in Australasian side-necked turtles (Testudines: Chelidae). Sci Rep 10: 4276 - get paper here
  • McCord, W. P., and M. Joseph-Ouni. 2007. A New Genus of Australian Longneck Turtle (Testudines: Chelidae) and a New Species of Macrochelodina from the Kimberley Region of Western Australia (Australia). Reptilia (GB) (53): 56-64 - get paper here
  • Ogilby, J.D. 1890. Description of a new Australian tortoise. Rec. Austral. Mus. 1: 56-59 - get paper here
  • Rhodin,A.G.J. & Mittermeier,R.A. 1976. Chelodina parkeri, a new species of chelid turtle from New Guinea, with a discussion of Chelodina siebenrocki Werner 1901. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 147 (11): 465-488 - get paper here
  • Savage, Jay M. 2007. Comment on the proposed precedence of Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines) over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 64 (1) - get paper here
  • Seddon, J. M.;Georges, A.;Baverstock, P. R.;McCord, W. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of chelid turtles (Pleurodira: Chelidae) based on mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence variation. Mol Phylogenet Evol 7 (1): 55-61 - get paper here
  • SHEA, GLENN; SCOTT THOMSON & ARTHUR GEORGES 2020. The identity of Chelodina oblonga Gray 1841 (Testudines: Chelidae) reassessed. Zootaxa 4779 (3): 419–437 - get paper here
  • Siebenrock, F. 1905. Chelonologische Notizen. Zool. Anz. 29: 460-468
  • Thomson, S. A. 2006. Case 3351. Chelodina rugosa Ogilby, 1890 (currently Macrochelodina rugosa; Reptilia, Testudines): proposed precedence over Chelodina oblonga Gray, 1841. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 63: 187-193. - get paper here
  • Thomson, Scott 2000. The identification of the holotype of Chelodina oblonga (Testudines: Chelidae) with a discussion of taxonomic implications. Chelonian Conserv. Biol. 3 (4):745-749
  • TTWG [Peter Paul van Dijk, John B. Iverson, Anders G.J. Rhodin, H. Bradley Shaffer, and Roger Bour] 2014. Turtles of the World, 7th Edition: Annotated Checklist of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution with Maps, and Conservation Status. 000.v7. Chelonian Research Monographs (ISSN 1088-7105) No. 5, doi:10.3854/crm.5.000.checklist.v7.2014 - get paper here
  • TTWG; Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., Bour, R., Fritz, U., Georges, A., Shaffer, H.B., and van Dijk, P.P. 2021. Turtles of the World: Annotated Checklist and Atlas of Taxonomy, Synonymy, Distribution, and Conservation Status (9th Ed.). In: Rhodin, A.G.J., Iverson, J.B., van Dijk, P.P., Stanford, C.B., Goode, E.V., Buhlmann, K.A., and Mittermeier, R.A. (Eds.). Chelonian Research Monographs 8:1–472. doi:10.3854/crm.8.checklist.atlas.v9.2021. - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1901. Ueber Reptilien und Batrachier aus Ecuador und Neu-Guinea. Verh. Zool.-bot. Ges. Wien 51: 593-614 - get paper here
  • Wilson, D.S. et al. 2003. Estimating age of turtles from growth rings: a critical evaluation of the technique. Herpetologica 59 (2): 178-194 - get paper here
  • Wilson, S. & Swan, G. 2010. A complete guide to reptiles of Australia, 3rd ed. Chatswood: New Holland, 558 pp.
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